notes ： The names of all interviewers in this article are pseudonyms
1997 year , On the evening of the fifth day of the Lunar New Year , For many rural families in Fuyang, a city in Northern Anhui Province , This is probably the last reunion dinner before the next spring festival .
The migrant workers in Fuyang believe in a common saying “ Three, six, nine , Go out ”, Therefore, the third day, the sixth day and the ninth day after the Spring Festival every year are the peak periods of travel in Fuyang station , Especially the sixth day , Because all the relatives who should go have gone ,“ 6、 ... and ” The blessing of this number makes “ Migrant workers ” I believe that leaving home on this day can make the whole year go smoothly .
I still want to use “ Migrant workers ” The word , Although there are more advanced and secure “ Migrant workers ” To address this group of people , But I come from a migrant worker family , I don't think the word "migrant workers" discriminates against them , On the contrary, I think this is a very kind word .
Liu Zhong is one of the migrant workers in Fuyang , As early as 1991 When Pudong was just developed in, he came to Shanghai with his village companions , They sell all kinds of plastic fruit plates in the streets 、 Vegetable basket, etc , Come to the most prosperous city when you are not in control , Even if you can make some money, you will lose to gambling and enjoyment , It was a failed working career . It's not peaceful after a , After the quarrelsome Spring Festival , His wife still believes that he can make a fresh start , This time he plans to continue to Shanghai ： Collect waste products .
After the reunion dinner , His wife arrived at the steelyard ordered by others , This is a necessary tool for waste collection , A steelyard 、 A bicycle 、 Two hanging cloth bags became the standard equipment for all migrant workers who collected waste at that time .
In the early days, there were not many job options for migrant workers , The manufacturing industry has not yet appeared on a large scale , Collect waste products 、 Entering the construction site has become the mainstream work choice .
The earliest migrant workers in New China appeared in the last world 80 s , The implementation of the household contract responsibility system allows a large number of farmers to have the opportunity to go out of the countryside ,40 Years passed , Statistics from the National Bureau of statistics show that the total number of migrant workers in China is 2021 Reach the 2.93 Billion .
1984 year , Chinese Academy of Social Sciences 《 Sociological communication 》 First put forward “ Migrant workers ” The word" , That was a stage of rapid economic development in China's coastal areas , A large number of farmers poured into the city , Form the first wave .
since 2010 Year begins , The National Bureau of statistics began to issue “ Migrant workers monitoring survey report ”. From the past 12 monitoring reports , China's migrant workers are from 2010 Year of 2.42 Million to 2021 Year of 2.93 Billion , The actual growth 21%, But actually from 2011 Year begins , The growth rate is declining in twists and turns , After the outbreak 2021 The year has improved slightly .
According to statistics ,2021 The total number of migrant workers in increased over the previous year 2.4%, among , Migrant workers are growing 1.3%, Local farmers The number of migrant workers has increased 4.1%, More and more farmers choose to work nearby , Instead of going out , This has something to do with the recurrence of the epidemic .
But in fact , Judging from the statistics , Migrant workers are more and more inclined to choose jobs nearby , from 2010 Year begins , The number of local migrant workers is increasing year by year ,2021 In, nearly 40% of migrant workers chose to work locally .
in addition , Migrant workers floating in the province are 2021 The annual share reaches 58.5%, The number of migrant workers who move across provinces continues to decrease . Just look 2016 Year to 2021 year , Take Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei 、 Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai 、 The eastern region represented by the Pearl River Delta , Although it has absorbed more than half of the migrant workers , But its total amount has gone from 15960 Ten thousand people reduced to 15438 ten thousand people , The proportion also increased from 56.65% Down to 52.78%.
From the age of migrant workers , As more and more migrant workers age , There is less and less fresh blood . Fewer people , Fewer people are willing to engage in manual labor , So the overall average age is increasing .
2017 Year begins ,50 The proportion of migrant workers aged over has broken through 20%,2021 Year has reached 27.3%.2022 Beginning of the year , The policy requires that 60 Migrant workers over years old are engaged in high-intensity physical labor such as construction , In essence, it hopes to ensure the physical safety of workers , But forced to , At present, there are still older migrant workers engaged in physical labor , Of course, the intensity is decreasing .
From the point of view of the output place , Inter provincial migrant workers in the central region account for 56.6%, The western region accounts for 47.8%, Migrant workers in eastern and Northeast China are mainly mobile within the province , The proportion of inter provincial migrant workers is 15.1% and 28.9%.
From the input point of view , Migrant workers employed in the eastern region 15438 ten thousand people , Increase over the previous year 306 ten thousand people , growth 2.0%. among , Migrant workers employed in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei 2125 ten thousand people , Migrant workers employed in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai 5339 ten thousand people , Migrant workers employed in the Pearl River Delta 4219 ten thousand people . Migrant workers employed in the central region 6571 ten thousand people , The largest increase was 5.5%. Migrant workers employed in the western region 6280 ten thousand people , Basically the same as last year . Migrant workers employed in Northeast China 894 ten thousand people , Increase over the previous year 41 ten thousand people , growth 4.8%. The increment of migrant workers employed in the central region accounts for... Of the national increment of migrant workers 49.8%.
From the perspective of industry , Migrant workers engaged in the tertiary industry account for more than half , The proportion engaged in the secondary industry is 48.6%, Among them, the proportion engaged in manufacturing is 27.1%, The proportion engaged in the construction industry is 19%. stay 2021 year , The income growth of migrant workers engaged in manufacturing industry is the fastest , Average monthly income of migrant workers in manufacturing industry 4508 element , Increase over the previous year 412 element , growth 10.1%, This has something to do with the fact that the return of a large number of migrant workers makes it difficult for enterprises to recruit workers , But it certainly makes manufacturing worse , The cost rises again .
With the development of urbanization and manufacturing, migrant workers , To a certain extent, different ages have also appeared in different ages .
02 New to prosperity ： Living in obscurity
Li Gui ,50 after , It was the first group of people who went out to work , Already this year 68 year ,3 Years ago, I started to be idle at home , Enjoy your old age with your savings and government subsidies , Because I am single all my life, I am carefree .
80 In the s, he followed a large number of migrant workers to Guangdong , At that time, Guangdong had shown its potential as the largest economic province , Foreign trade business gave birth to a group of early rich people here . Because there is no technology and I want to be free, I chose the job of collecting waste products , In fact, most of the time, it is more appropriate to pick up waste products . As an early migrant worker , They have some bad habits with them , This has brought some troubles to the urban aborigines .
In the same village 5 All the scavengers are in Guangdong , Shenzhen and Guangzhou go back and forth , They stayed there for more than ten years .
In addition to scavenging , It is also their choice to do some small business , But the problem with this small business is that they simply can't find a stable source of goods , There are also some barriers in communication with local people , The first generation of migrant workers did not even speak Mandarin fluently , It is even more difficult to do business .
In ligui's opinion , Living in a city, I feel that the city is far away from me . Most people don't rent , The high rental cost and the unsound rental market at that time led most of them to choose camping . But the good news is that the South , It is warm for most of the year , Bridge hole 、 Overhead is their most common choice .
To cope with a large number of migrant workers , Shenzhen is in 1984 The temporary residence permit policy was first introduced in , The implementation of the temporary residence permit has solved the problems of urban public security and management , But the drawback of the temporary residence permit is that it greatly reduces the mobility of the labor force , So here we are. 21 After the century , The temporary residence permit faces great challenge .
2005 Year begins , Some cities that have cancelled the temporary residence permit have to restart the temporary residence permit system because of social security problems , But many of them are more in line with the present “ Residence permit ”. today , Residence permits are widely practiced in Beijing and Shanghai , With the improvement of social security and the digitalization of Management , The present residence permit is more a proof of the local rights and interests of outsiders , It is not the original means to strengthen management .
03 To realize our long cherished wish in a rapidly developing society
Liu Qing ,70 after , Both children are married and have children , At present, Liu Qing's wife is helping to look after the children in his eldest son's shop , Liu Qing continued to work on the construction site .
90 years , The vast infrastructure construction and real estate construction have been started , At that time 70 Most of them choose to work on construction sites , The labor contractor was the special one that arose at that time “ call ”. The contractor is not the person in charge of an enterprise , But some kind of convener and speaker , The contractor is responsible for finding the site project , Negotiate price and settlement with the builder , And arrange food and accommodation for workers .
This scattered group of construction workers , Will not sign any labor agreements , There will be no social security , Basically, they are sent out in groups within the scope of a township , Let's introduce ourselves to each other .
At that time, construction sites were generally divided into “ A small worker ” and “ Big work ”, stay 90 In the s, a big worker could earn as much as 100 yuan a day , Even today 500、600 Yuandu has . Big workers refer to workers who have certain skills and are competent for high-intensity physical labor ,“ Make a shell ” and “ Pile driving ” They are two representative “ Big work ” Type of work . Shell making is also called formwork erection , Workers use planks to enclose the main support of the building to facilitate cement pouring , Pile driving is to drive the pile into the ground to make the foundation of the building firm , Of course, skilled bricklayer is also a big worker .
And a small worker is a construction worker who does a lot of chores , We often say that moving bricks belongs to the work of small workers , Now the wages of small workers are twoorthree a day .
Liu Qing is a big worker , Couples were very common at that time , The husband works hard , My wife does a little work , Or responsible for cooking and washing clothes .
With the income from the construction site, Liu Qing built two three story buildings at home , The two sons each have one . This is basically 70 The normality of post migrant workers , Because they just want to build a building for their children 、 Marry and have children . And this building may be a lifetime savings , Many people have no money to decorate their houses , Only threeorfour of the dozen rooms can be used , But three layers are necessary , This is a kind of comparison , It is also an account of struggle .
04 However, we should also hide the miscellaneous things
In three days , Wen Xia has worked in this garment factory in Ningbo for three months ,90 After that, Wen Xia couldn't stand the high-intensity work of three shifts and working overtime for no reason , She's going to quit and see what happens . Fellow villagers work in a hot pot restaurant in Shanghai , She also wants to try , Although very tired , But the relatively fixed work and rest time is what she wants , But for the moment , She won't be able to enter Shanghai for a while .
Why should I work for three months , It's because many factories ask for the first month's salary when employees enter the factory , To prevent frequent employee turnover . This is a month's salary , Some require you to work for three months before they settle your account , Some are half a year or more .
90 The latter group of migrant workers basically chose to work after graduating from junior high school , Few people in rural areas can be admitted to high school , There are few key high schools , Most of them can only attend vocational high school or ordinary high school . But many parents or their own expectations for attending vocational high school or ordinary high school are not clear , Instead of studying for three more years, I have to go out to work , It's better to enter the society early to make money , Essentially, they don't want to read .
They are also called the new generation of migrant workers , But they have lost the steadiness and stability of many migrant workers of their parents . Social development has not only brought convenience to people , It also brings more possibilities .90 The later workers have stronger self-awareness , Regard working honestly as unreliable and without “ Dream ” act ,90 The back is full of great dreams for the future . What they see and hear are all kinds of information transmitted by the Internet , But because some people have a weak ability to distinguish information , It leads to a lot of blind obedience and constant mistakes .
Lu Kai yes 90 The first generation after , In fact, he has received a certain good education , Before college , He was educated by his father who was a teacher , He has always been the best in the same group of children , Although the high school did not enter the best local middle school , But also in the provincial model high school .
Maybe it's personal , Maybe it's an external force , Maybe it's the pressure of family , It leads to the abnormal performance of the college entrance examination , Only went to an ordinary college , After graduation, I went to work in a shipyard . In fact, this is also a typical third generation of migrant workers , The difference is that some of this generation of migrant workers have received certain education , But it is only a certain education .
It is because of this certain education , Let them deeply understand the gap between reality and ideal . Lu Kai, who majored in Japanese in the University, always hopes to enter a Japanese enterprise with his love for Japanese , Even in the future To Japan For further study . The job in the shipyard obviously can't satisfy this desire , So he chose to go slow , Self taught Japanese .
The feedback of this slowdown is that life is getting worse , I am more and more far away from my dream , But things that are farther and farther away will become more and more urgent , So that I have no sense of down-to-earth life . Finally, Lu Kai left the shipyard and returned to his hometown , Still learning Japanese behind closed doors , Sometimes chatting will also talk about the society 、 philosophy , These fragmentary ideas are probably still obtained through various network soft articles .
Although Lukai is not a very excellent talent , But college degree and job in shipyard are not bad , If you can be steadfast , Can also live well in his city , His father bought a house in the city for him very early , But now everything seems to be gone .
05 Eager and next door , Always choose one
Migrant workers always have to correspond to a word called “ Stay behind ”： Left behind elderly 、 Left behind children 、 Left behind wife .50～80 The mentality of the later migrant workers when they come into contact with the city is probably pure ： It's good here , But it doesn't belong to me . They have deep attachment to their hometown, their wife and children, and their parents , So they know ： My mission in this city is to make money , You should be tired .
They are still relatively traditional in life planning , Including marriage .
At least to 80 The next generation , The problem of marriage and love in rural areas still revolves around the introduction of acquaintance society , But to some extent, it makes the success rate of marriage higher , Become stable , At a certain stage, boys and girls will choose a suitable and reliable partner based on their parents' and their own judgments .
（ Rural wedding banquet flowing banquet ）
but 90 Then he fell into another situation .
Back to the problem of City Cognition , The difference in 50～80 After the peasant workers , Their weak understanding of their hometown and family makes them curious about the outside world , What this curiosity brings is the hope to have more contact with the outside world . Even if you can't settle in this city , I also hope to plan my life according to a more urbanized ideology .
This is to some extent two-sided , We see that many migrant workers do have a firm foothold in the city , Even have their own business , Become New city people .
Li Wei, who is engaged in transportation auto repair in Guangdong, is actually one of these people , The first person who came to Shantou to work with his parents also chose to enter the factory , But the tedious and repetitive work makes him want to do something by himself . There are many factories in Guangdong , There is a huge demand in the transportation industry , So the family chipped in to buy a cold chain truck .
Li Wei's own restlessness makes him always want to be bigger . Because if we fight alone, we will face the embarrassing situation of less and unstable life , The factory also hopes to find a stable and reliable transportation team . So Li Wei integrated them , Set up a freight company . At present, the business is fairly stable , Income also increased significantly , Purchased real estate in Shantou , Married a wife , It can be regarded as a new Shantou person .
After all, there are a few like Li Wei , Most young people are facing a dilemma .
Long Fei and Wei Feng live in the same village 95 After the boy , Although it is 95 after , But in the countryside they are already “ Older men ”. In the past, they also worked in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. They all love online games , I met some girls from all over the country on the Internet or in real life , Some of them are in love , But most of them are daily online comforts .
They go home every year with the theme of blind date , Even because the blind date will be asked to go home before the Spring Festival 20 God , Because before the Spring Festival 20 Days are the golden time for blind dates in rural areas , If you come back late, your chances are slim . There is a passage on Tiktok ： Girls must hold back , Those who go home in early December are basically unsophisticated wage earners , Only those who come back two days before the Spring Festival have serious and stable jobs , Because they have a late holiday . It doesn't seem unreasonable , But parents don't care .
Longfei and Weifeng were once asked by their parents to enter the garment factory , Because their parents think there are more girls in the clothing factory , Especially large factories like Shenzhou , The probability of meeting a fellow townsman in a city or even a township is not certain , Look for someone in your part-time job .
It seems that the probability is not high , In the eyes of parents, it is also a way ： Whether a child can make money is of secondary importance , Getting married and having children is the key .
After the failure of this strategy , Weifeng was asked by his parents to stay at home . I don't want to raise my children all my life , It's the girls who come home occasionally , You can arrange a blind date , Even this probability is very low , But it is also more comforting than the result of working every year and doing nothing every year .
In the countryside 90 Later, the boy struggled between reality and ideal love , I believe they also rejected many girls , Because those girls simply can't support their desire for love .90 The same is true of the later rural girls , Their views on love will be more complicated , So the desire for love and marriage is more idealized .
But you have to choose one after all , Or never choose .
06 Internet , The best way to escape from reality
The rise of the live broadcasting industry is definitely due to migrant workers .
The China Youth Daily pointed out that , Among the people who watch the live broadcast and give rewards, there are a considerable number of migrant workers , Although there is no specific data to support , However, in recent years, the news that migrant workers reward the anchor has emerged in endlessly , Even the monthly income of migrant workers 3800 Reward 3780 News of .
The purpose of live broadcasting is to satisfy people who have less leisure time and entertainment options , Migrant workers happen to be such a group of people . Although most migrant workers work long hours , But there is still some spare time . Take the construction site as an example , The basic working hours are during the day , It is rare to work overtime at night , It's normal to get off work at sevenoreight , A few hours before going to bed becomes their free time .
If you think that migrant workers have no money, you are very wrong . In fact, for migrant workers , Especially the young migrant workers , Their awareness of money is very weak , There is basically no concept of saving money . And their work actually pays well , Especially for construction workers and factory workers , Food and accommodation are arranged by the construction site and the manufacturer , Their income is higher than that of most white-collar workers in the city , Especially disposable income .
In recent years , Many operators in the live broadcasting industry have caught the leisure hobby of migrant workers , Incubated the anchor loved by migrant workers' friends , Among them, selfie live broadcast is the most popular , Of course, it also includes chess and cards and other forms of entertainment loved by migrant workers . Among the migrant workers I interviewed 60% Have the habit of watching live broadcast regularly , exceed 80% Of the migrant workers have had the experience of giving rewards to the anchor , There are also fixed monthly 200 Yuan opened a special identity in a live studio .
Relative , Someone watched the live broadcast , There was a live broadcast .
Gaoxiaojian is a Tiktok blogger from Hengyang, Hunan , He is good at remaking or creating some stories , At present, there are... In Tiktok 1887 Thousands of fans , The average number of likes per video is 30 All the above . He also opened live broadcast with goods , And it is the certification of high-quality e-commerce experts on the Tiktok platform .
The special identity of migrant workers meets the private desire of outsiders and the identity of self groups , Some of them share their lives on the construction site , Others go back to their hometown to bring mountain goods , To some extent , This is a transformation . But there are also some migrant workers who hope to realize themselves through live broadcasting .
Five years ago, live broadcasting was in its heyday , At the beginning of the article, Liu Zhong's younger brother, Liugong, wanted to have a try , Liu Gong, who thought he had a good voice since childhood, purchased professional sound cards and live broadcasting equipment , Also joined an organization similar to the live guild , But the effect has been poor . In the countryside , The useless toss is “ Don't earn money ” The performance of the . The live broadcast that lasted for one or two years ended hastily under the complaints of reality and his wife , Liugong went back to the construction site to pile , These three years also began to make money gradually , When he came home from vacation, he would still lock himself in his room and record songs through mobile phone software , Maybe he really likes singing , This is also his dream .
In addition to the live broadcast , Short video 、 They are also the main force of chess and card games , The Internet has given them a lot of comfort , Let them spend their time after work , We cannot discuss this matter from the viewpoint of struggle , it is life .
07 Migrant workers “ Wild consumption ”
As we said earlier, migrant workers are not a group without money , On the contrary, their disposable income is much higher than that of most urban white-collar workers , But the frugality of migrant workers makes them not to consume casually .
according to 2016-2020 National Bureau of statistics 《 Migrant workers monitoring survey report 》 And urban consumption data ,2016-2020 year , The consumption loss caused by the lagging citizenization of migrant workers exceeds 1 Trillion yuan / year , The proportion of the annual actual final consumption of Chinese residents is 2% above . In other words, a large number of migrant workers earn income in cities , But their propensity to consume is only 50%, Much lower than that of urban residents 68%.
“vivo、 Qingdao 、 Little snowflake 、OPPO、 The small white 、 Old village head “, These brands are the main objects of daily consumption of migrant workers . Most of their mobile phone brands are made in China , Huawei 、OPPO、vivo Is their favorite mobile phone brand . Although there are data showing , Apple once became the favorite mobile phone brand among farmers , But in reality , In their opinion, the investment of fiveorsix thousand is still a big expense . Of course, a large number of migrant workers have started to use Apple phones purchased or eliminated by their children . According to a friend who sells mobile phones in Suzhou ,90 After that, the number of migrant workers exceeded 80% They all choose apples , While the older generation still favor domestic products .
Migrant workers' willingness to consume in the local cities is relatively low , But they also have wild consumption , Especially when I go home during the Spring Festival .
For many migrant workers exporting to big cities , Every Spring Festival, when the migrant workers return home, the consumption of the whole city increases rapidly . Fuyang City, where Liu Zhong is located, obviously shows this . Fuyang is a famous labor export city , data display , The city's migrant workers account for about% of the city's total population 40% above , According to the proportion of the total labor force, it may exceed 80%, It is a typical population exporting city .
2021 Fuyang City in GDP Ranking the fourth in Anhui Province , breakthrough 3000 RMB one hundred million yuan , However, the total retail sales of consumer goods in Fuyang City broke through 2000 Yigao ranks second in Anhui Province .
2021 During the golden week of Spring Festival , Eight shopping malls and six supermarkets in Fuyang City have realized 2.3 Billion sales , Year-on-year growth 50.8%. The turnover of major commodities increased compared with last year's golden week 240%, Among them, the clothing category rose 3 More than double 、 Gold jewelry rose 7 More than double , Household appliances rose 2 More than double . In a GDP Just broke through 3000 100 million cities , This kind of wild consumption during the Spring Festival has a certain connection with the return of migrant workers .
The addition of new items during the Spring Festival is the best expression of migrant workers' one-year struggle , So clothes 、 gold 、 The rapid growth of household appliances is not unreasonable , Car purchase Setting has also become an important choice .
2021 year , The automobile consumption in Fuyang City presents “ There is a rise in slowness ” situational . The city's Limited auto sales enterprises have achieved retail sales 150 One hundred million yuan , Year-on-year growth 21.7%, Average growth in two years 15.4%, Of the total retail sales of consumer goods in the city 29.7%, In the city 27 The highest proportion among the commodity categories , Become the most important factor affecting the consumer market .
With the increase of migrant workers' income , Migrant workers are becoming more and more wild in shopping . Relatively more leverage than most urban residents , Migrant workers have more choices , Life pressure is also much less , But they don't spend blindly , As long as the willingness to consume is not reduced, it can also provide a huge contribution to the growth of domestic demand .
08 I have no idea , I'm exhausted
“ Do you have any other questions , No, I went to bed first ！”
This is probably something that a writer cannot understand , Every day 10 Around o'clock, when we were still in Caisi spring , Many interviewees expressed the idea of taking a rest .
When I interviewed my migrant workers friends , In the spirit of the creator's stink , I always hope to find some earth shattering views and insights in their mouths , Those seemingly flashy and illusory views are also good . I'll ask them “ Will you feel lonely ？”“ What is the meaning of life ？“. But none of them talked to me , Or really have no idea , Or unwilling to face these thoughts , In short, they are not willing to discuss these too much .
Liu Zhong still has no fixed reply message , As in the past , Sometimes his family can't find him exactly ; Liguifu is at home , Take a free bus to and from the countryside and the city every day , Occasionally go to the street to play cards ; Liu Qing has time to reply to my message only in the evening , But after drinking the last bottle of Qingdao at night, he didn't want to type or talk at all , I just want to lie down and watch the live broadcast of chess and cards ; Wenxia is quite willing to express , But now the epidemic in Shanghai , She can only continue to work in the factory , There are still three shifts , Is still endless exhaustion , Her turn to the night shift was her biggest headache .
Maybe we shouldn't discuss more ideas , Most of the time their state 、 Their pursuit 、 Their loneliness 、 Their meaning is hidden in the deepest heart , Even if the creator of the cattle is not clear .
09 Return home 、 Transformation and the future
50 After the 70 Later in the interview, they will express “ I am the life of working , I have to work all my life “.
80 After that, especially 90 Later, when asked about the future, he would answer “ I can't work all my life ？“.
Li Cheng is a 90 After the boy , Before graduating from junior high school, I went out to work alone , In the printing factory near Langfang , It will take about ten years to do it . From a minor who can't do anything to a skilled technician , I bought a car by my own efforts , I got together with my daughter-in-law . He really doesn't depend on his family at all , And more support for families , A few years ago, his father, who had been working as a migrant worker, was laid off at home due to a serious illness , This is also one of his invisible pressures .
With the overall recession of the printing industry , In the past few years, he has taken less time off and more time off every month , So he often talks to me about what he wants to do . Early last year , He decided to quit his job in Langfang , Back home , He started breeding chicken with his relatives . Relatives in the downstream egg industry , They form a linkage between upstream and downstream , In the first year, you can earn an annual income 60 All the above , Although the three partners work together , But it's more than a part-time job . And he just needs to drive 10 You can get home in minutes , I can also take care of my father who is seriously ill .
More and more new generation of migrant workers are beginning to think about their fate , Some of them try to engage in some technical industries , Even if you need more study and practice , When they learn, they will choose to go home and do it by themselves . There are also some migrant workers who choose to go home and open stores after earning some savings , Although opening a shop is not a good business , But this is also the beginning of their change .
Because there are many young migrant workers around , So what they talked to me most about was what kind of store to open , Indeed, I seem to have a wide range of knowledge in Shanghai , But I have no idea what the real business in the third and fourth tier cities is like .
Li Gen, a fellow villager of Li Cheng, also worked in Shanghai before , Mainly engaged in real estate sales , But with the bad times in recent years , He and his wife chose to return to the provincial capital , Open your own shop , Bring back some thoughts from Shanghai to my hometown , Have your own business , Even if the income is the same as that of working , It's a good start .
The new generation of migrant workers are tired of being too far away from home , Especially as their parents who worked in the previous generation have grown old , This complex is getting stronger and stronger , And young people are tired of repeated meaningless work because of their inner motivation . The transformation of 、 change , They have been thinking .
10 Past or future , They are all powerful forces
Whether from the past or the present , Migrant workers are all great forces .
In the early stage of large-scale urbanization and manufacturing development , With a large number of excellent workers, we have achieved rapid development and overtaking in curves , Migrant workers play an important role , They are steadfast 、 A worker 、 Don't care , You can say that there is no choice , But I prefer to believe that this is the simplicity from the countryside .
In Shanghai 7 More years , I've heard a lot about migrant workers . There must be an evaluation of their literacy , There are also some comments with a little dissatisfaction , But I hear more and more positive comments . I saw a short video during the epidemic , A Shanghai native in the suburbs regularly sends vegetables to a migrant worker friend who lives in his own house , From the short video, I heard the familiar local accent , It was a very down-to-earth moment .
Theoretically, I also belong to migrant workers , Just do not engage in physical labor , I have been trying to integrate with this city , Like all my fellow countrymen . We really don't belong to this city , But we will bring our own value to the city , And don't make a mess of the city .
Now Shanghai , cleaner 、 The stall owner of the vegetable market 、 The waiter of the hotel 、 Takeaway 、 In the courier , I hear more and more familiar local sounds , Together, we have formed a group of migrant workers in this city , I think this in itself is something to be proud of .
In the past , The older generation dedicated their value with physical strength , Get the corresponding return . future , More and more peasant groups appear in more and more novel identities , It will still create greater value for the society ！
This article is from WeChat official account. “ Attack finance and Economics ”（ID：jinbubo）, author ： Paidong Research Institute , edit ：Chuck,36 Krypton authorized release .