In order to enhance team motivation , Open leadership can study the implicit social norms that guide members' behavior and decision-making .
Culture in Very important . but “ Culture ” It seems to be such a huge and complex concept . How can we help open organizations understand it ？
A solution may come from 《》 The author of ： Close and loose cultures and secret signals that guide our lives .Gelfand Divide all countries and cultures into two simple categories ： One is “ Tight ” Culture , The other is “ Loose ”. then , She explained the characteristics and social norms of both , Provides their comparative advantages and disadvantages . By studying both , We can overcome team 、 Differences and conflicts between organizations and countries .
In this two part 《Rule Makers, Rule Breakers》 In your comments , I will explain Gelfand The argument of , And discuss how it can be useful for people working in open organizations .
Gelfand Think , Our behavior largely depends on whether we live in “ Tight ” still “ Loose ” In community culture , Because every culture has social norms different from other cultures . These specifications ——— And the severity of enforcement ——— Will determine our behavior in society . They give us identity , They help us coordinate with each other . In short , These values unite communities .
They also affect our world outlook , Affect the way we construct our environment , Even affect the processing of our brain . Gelfand writes ：“ Countless studies have shown that , Social norms are important to unite communities into cooperation 、 A well coordinated group , So as to achieve great achievements .” Throughout history , The community allows its citizens to participate in what seems to be the craziest ceremony , In addition to maintaining group cohesion and cooperation , No other reason . These rituals are more closely linked , So that people can survive （ Especially in hunting 、 Foraging and wartime ）.
Social norms include rules that all of us automatically follow , Gelfand Call it a kind of “ Normative autopilot ”. These are things we can do without thinking ———— for example , In the library 、 The cinema 、 Keep quiet in the elevator or on the plane . We will do these things automatically . “ On the surface ,” Gelfand say , “ Our social norms often look strange . But deep down , We take this for granted .” She explained , Social norms can be incorporated into laws and regulations （“ Observe the stop sign ” and “ Don't steal ”）. Others are basically self-evident （“ Don't stare at the people on the train ” or “ Cover your mouth when sneezing ”）. Of course , They vary according to the environment .
The challenge is that most social norms are invisible , We don't know to what extent these social norms control us . Before you know it , We often just follow the crowd around us . This is known as “ Group thinking ”, In this way of thinking , People will follow the group they identify with , Even if this group is wrong . They don't want to stand up .
Gelfand Organize social norms into different groups . She thinks , Some specifications have “ Close together ” The characteristics of culture , Other specifications have “ Loose ” The characteristics of culture . So , Gelfand Yes, from five continents 30 Agreement of several countries 7000 People were studied and sampled , They have a wide range of careers 、 Gender 、 Age 、 religious 、 Sect , And social class , To understand where these communities are positioning themselves （ And their social norms in the official and community / The overall implementation of the community ）. The differences between tight and loose cultures are between countries 、 Within the country （ Such as the United States and its various regions ）、 Inside the organization 、 There are differences within social classes and even within families .
Because the organization has culture , They also have their own social norms （ After all , If an organization cannot coordinate its members and influence its behavior , It will not exist ）. therefore , Organizations can also reflect and instill Gelfand Described as “ Close together ” or “ Loose ” Cultural characteristics of . And if we have a strong ability to identify these differences , We can more successfully predict and resolve conflicts . then , With a higher understanding of these social norms , We can put the principle of open organization into practice .
Gelfand This describes the difference between tight and loose cultures ：
In a broad sense , Loose cultures tend to be open , But they are also more disorderly . On the other hand , A close culture has a comforting order and predictability , But their tolerance is low . This is the trade-off between tight and loose ： Advantages in one field coexist with disadvantages in another .
She concluded that , A tight society maintains a strict social order 、 Synchronization and self-discipline ; A loose society is characterized by a high degree of tolerance 、 Be creative and open to change .
Although this is not always the case , But tight and loose cultures often show some trade-offs ; Everyone has his own strengths and weaknesses . See the figure below 1 .
The successful application of the five principles of open organization in these two environments may be very different . To succeed , Community commitment is crucial , If social norms are different , The reasons for commitment will be different . Organizational leaders must know what the values of the community are . That's the only way , This person can fully inspire others .
In the next section of this review , I will explain more thoroughly the characteristics of close culture and loose culture , So that leaders can better understand how to apply the principles of open organization to the team .
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