Self mockery “ Workers ” Young people of , Why not just enter “ Work overtime ” The adult ver , There seems to be no choice ？
We don't need “ Internal volume ” To summarize this phenomenon roughly , What we want to know is , How did such a bad ecology come into being .
from “ Small town is the topic writer ”, To “ Workers ” and “ Code the agriculture ”, Beyond self mockery , More young people need to be heard .
? author | Cheng Chi
? edit | Xiao Feng
The employees of Internet companies have become the focus of people's attention .
sudden death 、 Committed suicide 、 layoffs , Once a glittering factory Logo Covered with a gray shadow .
But the logic of capital does not follow people's wishes , After the negative news , The stocks of these big Internet companies are usually all the way up .
Cruel and real “ Big factory ” Ecology unfolds before our eyes . In this ecology , No one can be a spectator . They caused a lot of discussion , It's not just that “ Daily tragedy ” Sad enough to touch , It is also because they promote people's reflection on their own situation .
From last year's concern about the delivery staff trapped in the system , To “ Small town is the topic writer ” and “ Workers ” Self mockery of , And now it's pushed to the climax “ Overwork ”“996”“ Overtime culture ” The discussion of the , People's eyes are more and more focused on “ capital ” as well as “ capitalist ”, But the Shura for Internet workers , Just depending on the capitalists , It can't be refined .
An unequal childhood
Young people who work in these big internet factories become “ Workers ” Before , They are more likely to have another level of identity “ Small town is the topic writer ”.“ Small town is the topic writer ” It's just a self mockery , They may not all come from China “ Small town ”, From second or third line or below 、 The young people in cities in their families will also call themselves “ Small town is the topic writer ”.
Recognition of this label , More from the college entrance examination after entering the University , Deeply experience the existence of class . In the classroom of high school , School uniform and achievement greatly reduce young people's experience of class , But remove the classroom filter , After entering the adult world , Direct class experience is inevitable .
Spoken English 、 Extracurricular activities 、 Interpersonal skills 、 Clothing taste and even emotional experience , All will “ Small town is the topic writer ” It goes straight to the “ Stratum ” In the spotlight .
In Douban “ Small town is the topic writer ” In the group , There is one “ As a small town writer , What do you think are your main weaknesses ？ Or what is the biggest difficulty ？” 's post . The most liked responses were ：“ Cowardice , In other words, because of the love of face and dare not touch and try new things . I'm afraid others will look down on me .”
This part thinks it is “ Small town is the topic writer ” Of the students may be criticized as hypocritical , Or too sensitive , But the truth is , Whether it's in China , Or abroad , Education is an important element of class division .
Annette, American sociologist · Laru wrote after she studied the lives of students from different families 《 An unequal childhood 》 in , How does social status affect family life .
《 An unequal childhood 》
[ beautiful ] Annette · Lalu Writing
Song Shuang Zhang Xu translate
Peking University press
She mentioned , Middle class families are more inclined to “ Collaborative training ”, That's what parents have for their children 、 Actively develop and evaluate insight and skills . They are targeted and unremitting efforts to stimulate the development of children , To develop their cognitive and social skills . The working class is another “ Achievement and natural growth ” The concept of , There is less intervention for children .
In this way, the difference of education is directly experienced in the use of language , The middle class “ Endless efforts to focus on reasoning and negotiation ”, For the working class ,“ Language is more of a social tool , Mandatory language is very common ”.
Middle class families have a wider range of topics to discuss , And the use of achievement in the natural growth of the family , In addition to using mandatory language , Most of their discussion was about money —— Language environment causes “ Subconscious anxiety ” It can take root in children's heart .
Parents waiting outside the entrance examination room . chart / Figure worm creative
The situation in China is different from that in the United States , But in the near future “ Haidian mother ”“ Chicken baby ” and “ Hengshui model 、 Maotan factory mode ” In the discussion , We can all find the same path to these anxieties .
Anxiety is directly related to competition ,“ Small town is the topic writer ” Before you go to college , The biggest competition I have ever experienced is the college entrance examination .
2020 year , The number of people taking the college entrance examination in China has reached a new high , The number of people 1071 ten thousand , As you can see from the diagram , There is a significant gap in the admission rate of one book among different regions , The gap between the highest and lowest admission rates has reached 40% .
2020 year , Admission rate of one book in each province . chart / Senior three
As an important part of selective college entrance examination “ Cruelty ” It inspires a kind of transformation “ The Wolf sexual culture ”. Although the Hengshui model and the Maotanchang model have been discussed many times , But people talk more about these giant middle schools, in our opinion “ extreme ” To improve the rationality of the score —— But maybe what we should talk about is the nature of it “ Monopoly ”.
2019 year , Science in Hengshui middle school 700 More than 23 people , Occupy the whole province 700 Number of people with score above 85%, Liberal arts 670 More than 22 people , Occupy the whole province 52%. More specific 2020 The annual data is , Hebei Province 100 name , Hengshui middle school 68 people , Before science 100 Fame is the key to success 76 people —— In other areas , This phenomenon is hard to imagine .
“ Super high school ” The pattern of the new model was rare more than a decade ago , Now we can feel that super high schools are appearing in more and more areas .
documentary film 《 College entrance examination 》 in , Close monitoring of super high school . chart /《 College entrance examination 》
Strict daily to minute planning 、 A lot of repetitive training 、 Continuous testing and ranking 、 Uniform slogan 、 Railings welded on the corridor , And the teachers on tour . The purpose of students' life is only college entrance examination , thus , The environment of the school has already done a good job for the students “ Discipline ”.
such “ Discipline ” Most directly reflected in the building , In Foucault's 《 Discipline and punishment 》 in , There is a very clear analysis of architecture and power ：
“ A building is no longer just for viewing （ Like the glitz of a palace ） Or to see the space outside （ Design of rubuquan ）, But for the convenience of clear and detailed control of the internal —— Make every move of the people in the building clear .”
《 Discipline and punishment 》
[ Law ] Michelle, · By Foucault
Liu Beicheng / Translated by Yang Yuanying
life · read · Xinzhi Sanlian Bookstore
Students enter Campus , In a neat and uniform classroom , What we need to face is monitoring and teachers' inspection , Under the pressure of score and examination , These levels of monitoring are gradually rationalized into daily monitoring .
Fast forward to these “ Small town is the topic writer ” The soldiers rushed out of the siege , Get a degree , After entering work . Strict management and monitoring of work units 、KPI The requirements of , And working overtime , It's also very easy to rationalize —— If students in the canteen line up to eat time, they need to take out the word card to recite words , So strict supervision at work , It's not unpredictable .
It's like a netizen lamenting the sudden death of an employee ：“ They didn't even know they were talking ‘ No ’ The right to .” Such a tragic event makes people discuss again “ capital ” and “ capitalist ”.
The logic of capital
When “ Small town is the topic writer ” After entering the factory , As a vassal to “ capital ” The individual of , It's really powerless .
The most well-known criticism of capital comes from Marx 《 Capital 》, Marx's criticism of capital and capitalists is direct and violent ：
“ As a capitalist , He's just a personified capital . His soul is the soul of capital . Capital has only one life instinct , This is value added itself , Creating surplus value , Suck as much surplus labor as possible with its own invariable part, that is, the means of production . It's like a vampire , Only sucking living labor can have life , The more live labor you suck , The more vigorous it is .”
“ Under slavery , Ownership conceals that slaves work for themselves , And in wage labor , Monetary relations cover up the cost free labor of employed workers .”
England during the first industrial revolution . chart / Wikipedia
《 Capital 》 It has been observed in capitalist labor relations ,“ people ” The alienation of . Marx 19 The society observed in the middle and late 20th century is part of the logic of capital , Today, more than 150 years later ,“ capital ” It's more complicated than what Marx had observed .
Simmel, a contemporary sociologist of Marx （Georg Simmel）, In his 《 Monetary Philosophy 》 Chinese vs “ currency ” We may also be able to understand with our own thinking “ currency ”“ capital ” The inevitable tragedy in modern society .
《 Monetary Philosophy 》
[ Virtue ] simmel Writing
Chen rongnv / Geng Kaijun / Wen pin yuan translate
In Simmel's view , In modern society, money has become a hot topic “ Condensed symbols ”. Money as a symbol , It has become the standard to measure social economic value and even individual value , To be objective 、 Quantitative and average oriented penetration economy 、 Culture and spiritual life .
Money endows things with objectivity ,“ Balance all kinds of things …… Money hollows out the core of things , Hollowed out the characteristics of things , Unique values and characteristics , There is no room for recovery . Things are drifting in the same proportion in the torrent of money ……” And there's a reminder ,“ A value of pure quantity , The interest in pure calculation is overwhelming the value of quality , Although in the end only the latter can meet our requirements .”
become “ Workers ” Of “ Small town is the topic writer ” People , It's reduced to data . Their inputs and outputs are calculated accurately , Capital and efficiency have become inseparable . This is a kind of modernity “ Sisyphus ” tragedy , Keep repeating , manufacture “ capital ” The meaning of .
Simmel commented ：
“ Monetary economy finally makes monetary value as the only effective value , People are more and more quickly passing by the special meanings of things that cannot be expressed economically …… The core and meaning of life always slip away from us ： We get less and less certainty , All the work is worthless .”
This kind of observation may have been obvious more than a hundred years ago “ leading ”, But corresponding to the life picture of many young people now , It can be said that every word is accurate . The living space is compressed to the present , whatever “ distance ” It's all in vain , Public transport commuting 、 Office buildings 、 Daily attendance card punch 、 Cubicle 、 Work computer …… These elements become a huge part of life .
The social animals in the lattice . chart /《 I'm still a virgin at 30 , Seems to be a magician 》
This picture , This is the picture of overtime culture . The Chinese themselves are right “ diligence ” With the most simple identity , But in the social environment where efficiency and output are highly worshipped , This kind of simple identification will become a kind of culture “ Iron law ”.
In the brightly lit office building of a large factory , Young people are constantly burning for output and efficiency , Voluntary or involuntary , Everyone is in the same system and can't get out .
The capitalists are not allowed to be reckless , I've been reckless for a long time
Greedy for capitalists 、 It's not wrong to be critical , But systematically 《 labour law 》 ignore 、 Squeeze on employees 、 The extreme worship of efficiency and capital , Putting the relationship between man and capital before the horse , It can't be formed overnight , It is not a unique phenomenon in China .
In recent years , With the development of smart phones , China's Internet economy is advancing by leaps and bounds ,“ Big factory ” With its brand effect and higher salary , Become the first choice of many young people .
But we should rely on brain power and innovation to show our advantages “ Big factory ”, But retained the very primitive assembly line factory style —— Relying on sea of people tactics , Fighting in the market . Internet factory becomes a collection “ capital-intensive ” and “ Labor intensive ” Giant Leviathan .
The special environment constantly supports such a system .
《 People who give up after use 》
[ beautiful ] Kevin · Bear Writing
Cao Jinyu translate
Sanhui books | Nanjing University Press
Scholars Qi Liangshu and Liu lanzai 2013 According to a survey in , The average working hours of workers with different registered residence status have obvious gradient. ： Expatriates have more overtime than local staff .
All kinds of Internet companies and their enterprises have more than 100000 employees , And the young people within five years of graduation accounted for the absolute majority . in other words , For a foothold in the city , Many new employees have to work overtime , To accomplish excessive tasks .
The situation in China is very similar to that in Japan more than ten years ago , Japanese scholar chuanrenbo studies Japan “ karoshi ” After the phenomenon , It was used “ Excessive Society ” To describe Japan （1994）.
in other words , Japanese society is full of excessive efficiency 、 Excessive quality 、 Over consumption and over service . Enterprises pursue efficiency excessively , Constantly transcending the physical and spiritual boundaries of workers —— This is very similar to the situation facing China today .
《 Hanzawa Naoki 》 The power relations in the Japanese workplace shown in . chart / Hanzawa Naoki
Japan in the 20th century 60 S to 70 years , Economic take-off , A large number of rural people here have moved to cities and towns , When the influx of labor into cities and towns is the most , It is also the most serious time of overwork in Japan .
After the market reform in China , The competition among enterprises is intensifying , So we went into a kind of “ Catch up mode ” in . concept 、 System and behavior are not completely divorced from previous experience , So in a country similar to Japan “ Excessive Society ” in , Now it's close to young people “ savage ” Exploitation of .
East Asian “ Collectivism ” The tendency also indirectly promotes the overtime culture . Under the culture of collectivism , Overtime will soon develop from the individual to the whole group .“ The Wolf sexual culture ” It has always been closely related to excessive collectivism , When an individual is bound to a team , The autocracy of workplace is formed naturally .
This also partly explains the fact that “ paradoxical ” Investigation report of , Now there is 52.3% Of the young people who work every week 40 hours , But only 37.4% About 70% of the working youth think that they work overtime —— in other words , Yes 15% More than 90% of working youth are not aware that they are working overtime .
And young people who realize they're working overtime , Yes 67.4% Thirty percent of young people think they work overtime voluntarily . Among the involuntary youth , There are about 20% Young people are forced by the pressure of their work units “ Overtime subculture ” And overtime .
Through this survey , We can see it very clearly ,“ Overtime culture ” The formation of , Remove the oppression of employers , Communication with employees “ Identification ” Also closely related . Internship opportunities in large factories can form today's underground industrial chain ,“ Worship of Dachang ” And “ The Wolf sexual culture ” It's not surprising that it's recognized by many young people .
《 The age of overwork 》
[ Japan ] Takashi Morioka Writing
Mi Yanjun translate
New classics | New Star Press
The whirlpool of Neo liberalism
but “ Workers ” It's also a fragment of the larger narrative .
When we discuss “ capitalist ” When , The most common defense is the combination of capitalists and markets with freedom , Rationalize the unreasonable company system with the market system , Thus a set of rules was created “ Existence is reason ” The words of .
Adam, the earliest advocator of classical liberalism · Smith and David · Hume et al , This paper systematically expounds how a circulating and open market can increase national wealth , And ultimately benefit the people .
In Adam · Smith's 《 On the wealth of Nations 》 in , He talked about how labor produces division of labor , How to increase productivity by refining division of labor , And it promotes a more complex monetary system , Increase national wealth . He encouraged free markets , promote “ Mercantilism ”. Therefore , His ideas have always been the creed of free market defenders .
1776 The first edition was published in London 《 On the wealth of Nations 》. chart / Wikipedia
But in fact , Smith emphasized the relationship between market and labor , The market does not lead the labor force blindly . He insisted on freedom 、 Open market , But it also emphasizes “ Rich labor remuneration is the inevitable result of the increase of wealth , It is also a natural sign of the increase of national wealth . conversely , The lack of means of living of working civilians is a natural sign of stagnation “.
Later in Smith's life, another advocate of liberalism, John · Muller is in his office 《 On freedom 》 The exposition of freedom is very clear , But he said it clearly ：“ The behavior of anyone , Only the part that involves others must be responsible to society ”.
《 On freedom 》
[ Britain ] John · By Muller
Meng Fanli translate
Utopia | Shanghai Sanlian bookstore
in other words , Capitalists and their families “ Big factory ” As an employer , Their system is closely related to individual employees , No bottom line “ Overtime culture ” Even under liberal rhetoric , It's also a violation of employees' freedom —— That's why , When freedom is only for capitalists and enterprises , Not employees ,“ free ” It's hypocritical .
If classical 、 In the context of simple liberalism , If the defense of capitalists is not tenable , that “ Neo liberalism ” Can we rationalize the capitalist's behavior completely ？
With globalization ,“ Neo liberalism ” stay 1970 Sweeping the world after the 1980s . In order to avoid the emergence and development of economy “ Great Depression ” A similar recession , Neo liberalism advocates the elimination of trade barriers 、 Free trade 、 Respect for individual rights, etc , It is a renewal of classical liberalism . It brings all human behaviors into the market , And guide human behavior .
Thatcher's meeting with Reagan's cabinet . chart / Wikipedia
1970 years , Thatcher of England and Reagan of America are conservative , The new liberalism was popularized . Neoliberalism is a political plan , It reconstructs the conditions for capital accumulation , And restore power to the economic elite .
use “ Neo liberalism ” Those who argue for capitalists may forget , Or not —— In Hayek 、 Milton · friedman 、 Carl · Popper and others set up a group of people who support Neo liberalism “ Mont Pelerin Society ” when , They think that “ None of this （ Market and law ） The decentralization of power and the spirit of innovation brought by the system , It's hard to imagine a society that can effectively guarantee freedom ”.
in other words , The birth of new liberalism , It is directly related to the economic crisis . Neoliberalism is more appealing in times of economic downturn than in times of economic boom .
Several Internet companies in China this year “ Big factory ” There was negative news , The increasingly fierce market competition is related to the global economic downturn caused by the epidemic this year . The original market has been carved up , The global depression is making investors happy （ That is to say “ Capitalists ”） Our assets have shrunk —— So more fierce competition is inevitable .
in other words , More intense competitive pressure has led to more serious exploitation of the bottom employees . The utopian vision of globalization under the illusion of Neo liberalists —— Better society , A more equal and free society —— Before implementation , Most of the competitive pressure of globalization is directly transferred to the bottom labor force .
Neo liberalism and globalization bring many benefits , It has improved the lives of millions of people . But do migrant workers have to have bright office buildings 、 The lifestyle of leaving work at two o'clock in the morning pays for the capitalists' own crisis ？
《 A brief history of Neo liberalism 》
[ Britain ] David · Harvey Writing
Wang Qin translate
Shanghai Translation Press
The law is only the minimum standard
The town's problem makers have been criticized in the workplace “ Exploit ” The state of , Is not so much “ be insatiably avaricious ” It's caused by the capitalists , It's more like a long period of discipline 、 Globalization and Neo liberalism 、 The natural characteristics of capital 、 The dilemma of human modernity and the common conspiracy of the special social environment .
Change cannot happen overnight , But we can learn from countries that have gone through this stage .
American enterprises promote flexible working system , That is to say, to guarantee 40 Under the premise of working hours , Employees can decide their own working hours . Since the outbreak last year , Many companies have started to work at home , As long as you can get the job done , You are not required to work in the company .
Many companies in the United States also provide counseling and legal aid , Ensure the interests of employees .
In Japan, , Formulated by the Ministry of health, labor and welfare 《 Labor safety law 》, The revision 《 Comprehensive measures to prevent health damage caused by excessive labor 》, Strict requirements for enterprises to ensure that employees have a normal and reasonable working environment , And invest funds to monitor and study the Overwork status , Try “ Quantifying fatigue and developing anti fatigue drugs ”.
The seat of the Ministry of health, welfare and labor . chart / Wikipedia
In Europe, , Yes 95% Big companies and 85% Small and medium-sized enterprises provide stress relief assistance to their employees , The annual cost is nearly 100% 800 Billions of euros . This is not a small cost has been paid off , Studies have shown that , The enterprise carries on in the staff decompression aspect 1 The return on the euro investment is 3-16 euro .
If strictly in accordance with 《 labour law 》 Supervise domestic enterprises , Improve the working environment , Define the conditions for overtime , Yes “ The Wolf sexual culture ” and “ Overtime culture ” After disenchantment , The original expansion mode of various enterprises , Maybe there will be a change .
But after all, legal supervision is only the lowest standard . How to make “ capital ” Don't crush young people , More needs to be done .
1.[ beautiful ] Annette · Lalu ,《 An unequal childhood 》, Peking University press ,2018-6
2.[ Law ] Michelle, · Foucault ,《 Discipline and punishment 》, life · read · Xinzhi Sanlian Bookstore ,2019-10
3.[ Virtue ] simmel ,《 Monetary Philosophy 》, Huaxia press ,2018-11
4. Meng xuduo . A study on the causes of excessive labor [D]. Capital University of economics and Trade ,2013.
5. Qi Liangshu , Liu Lan . China's labor market and its registered residence gap [J]. economists ,2019(11):45-54.
6. Huang Zhongqin . Research on the phenomenon of employees' involuntary inefficient overtime [D]. Huazhong Agricultural University ,2013.
7. Hua Xianying . A case study on the daily life of new white collar workers in Chinese cities [D]. Northeast University of Finance and economics ,2016.
8.[ Britain ] John · By Muller , Translated by Meng Fanli 《 On freedom 》, Utopia | Shanghai Sanlian bookstore