Write it at the front
The original intention of this article is very simple , I had a headache NAS Of , because NAS It's not Xiaobai Xiang's household appliances , It's a more complex system , finished product NAS It just gives you a hardware platform , You need to have a foundation to install all kinds of applications , So I wrote two more detailed articles NAS After the original text , I decided to synthesize , Step by step, teach everyone to start from scratch , Perfect build your own NAS Remote video server , And for my own reasons , This article is more detailed , from IOS And android , from plex To emby, From LAN to remote access , Every step involves .
This should be the most complete and minimal albino article , It is suggested to watch after collection , The full text is about 7000 word .
Okay , Not much said , We began to .
finished product NAS To share the experience of purchasing
We're thinking about video servers , therefore NAS It is best to X86 Architecture level , The core must be strong enough to decode 4k,ARM Architecturally NAS Not suitable for tossing , The first is that the memory is generally small , The second is that the performance is too weak , What kind of backup file is suitable for , If you need to think about remote , that ARM It's not very suitable for .
at present NAS aspect , The entry-level ones are J3455 processor , The higher ones are J4005 and J4115 processor , All three processors can decode smoothly 4K H256 Level movies , But only for the same time 1-2 People watch online transcoding , So if you're particularly demanding , finished product NAS You may have to consider a lot higher level of , Or just yourself DIY NAS The server , None of this is within the scope of our discussion this time .
I suggest that the first choice is J4115 Server's NAS, The second is J4005, And finally J3455.
This time it was built NAS Yes J3455 and J4005 Two sets of , because plex After purchasing a member, you can only install one NAS On , So I used another one NAS test Emby.
Let's talk about the new model of Wei Unicom TS-251D Home level NAS, The processor is J4005.
251D It's a household entry level double disk NAS, as everyone knows NAS High cost , Hard disk is big head , And a lot of buying 4 Disk position NAS The consumer , It's also increasing the number of hard disks bit by bit , After all, the cost of large capacity hard disk is too high , So two plates NAS It's more suitable for cash strapped users .
The capacity is really not enough ？
I don't think so , After all, video storage class NAS, It's not about storing important information , If you don't use it PT download , perhaps PT Download and hang a mobile hard disk , In principle, the probability of damage is very low .
A digression , If it's important information , I don't put the data in a single place , But at least 2 A or 3 individual .
Then two disks cannot be set up RAID What shall I do? ？
For the average consumer , Video and sound NAS The server doesn't need to build anything RAID Of , I strongly recommend single dish , In this way, if you can't get all the hard drives in one step , You can also add a hard disk later , Cost savings .
So you don't need to see anything in this article raid And storage pools, which are slightly more complex terms , We don't need to , You're like an external storage device that can add a hard disk at will , Just like computers, add hard disks at will , Is that a lot more comfortable ？
251D The appearance of the , I personally think there is a sense of design , At least this color match , Compared with the previous NAS, It's going to be a lot better , At least you can hook up with good-looking .
The upper part is the power button and indicator light , From top to bottom is the power indicator 、 The Internet 、 One click Copy 、 Hard disk 1 And the hard disk 2.
Put one in front of it USB3.0 Interface , Easy to copy directly or one click backup , The following is the most common one click replication of weiunicom / Back up button .
251D Have PCI-E expand , In addition, I brought a HDMI Interface , I'll talk about this later .
The second is common 3.0 Interface and Gigabit network port ,3.0 The interface can be connected with a mobile hard disk PT download , Or as UPS Communication output port .
One Gigabit interface is completely enough , At present, Gigabit bandwidth , Play dozens of them at the same time 4k The movie , Bandwidth is also sufficient .
There is a slide lock button on the left side of the front , After unlocking, you can open the hard disk cover .
The bracket also supports 2.5 as well as 3.5 Inch hard disk , If you have an obsolete laptop, the mechanical hard disk can also be used for emergency use .
2G Memory is too small , I personally strongly recommend expanding memory to 6GB perhaps 8GB,251D The biggest support 8G Memory , The specification is notebook memory DDR4 2400.
I prepared two pieces this time 10T WD data NAS Red plate , This is western data for NAS Configured , I suggest that the red disk of Western data should not be used as a download disk , Store movies 7X24 Turn on , That's what it is. NAS The important use of hard disk .
Because of the single disk setting , therefore , The actual capacity is 20TB.
Be me PT When downloading , Download disk is always the most broken and cheapest hard disk , The capacity is not big either .
If you can't configure two hard drives at a time , It's OK to use a hard disk first , Single disk setting is so capricious .
After confirmation, we start from scratch , Step by step configuration .
Some basic knowledge of building remote video server
I'll talk about some basic knowledge in detail , Xiao Bai, who is convenient for the first time to contact, completely understands what system this is .
Remote video server , You need hardware and storage that can decode , You need to have remote access to , You need to set PT download , Even remote access PT Interface , Finally, it's based on NAS Hardware build the corresponding streaming media system .
Do you need gigabytes ？
Gigabit LAN is best to have , If not, the practicability will be greatly reduced , In theory, the transmission speed of 100m LAN can be played 4k resources , But wouldn't it be better to get there in one step .
We have the hardware level , Namely NAS, Remote access also belongs to the software level ,PT Download is also in NAS Aspect settings , The corresponding streaming media system also has ready-made , That's the famous closed source plex、 Open source emby And free Jellyfin.
Streaming media systems can help you organize your movie poster wall 、 classified 、 And remote clients to access , That's what makes them powerful .
stay NAS Install the upper streaming media service system on , With or without money , Choose the appropriate streaming media system according to your preference .
And there are some powerful LAN player software , similar infuse、kodi, These are relative to plex、emby and Jellyfin What's the difference ？
infuse、kodi It is based on LAN , Simply speaking ,NAS The streaming media server built on NAS To process the video , Such as transcoding and then playing , This will be subject to NAS Processor performance , and infuse、kodi It's usually a system installed in a TV box or a hardware player , They also have the ability to organize poster walls 、 The function of categorization , But the hardware performance of the system is more powerful .
infuse、kodi It can't be played remotely , But it can be used as a local player to play resources that you have connected to in other ways .
infuse、kodi It can also be used with plex perhaps emby Such as system , Use it together , Common are infuse+plex,kodi+plex.
When building the Poster Wall , Whether it's infuse、kodi、plex still emby, To automatically search for posters 、 Actor information 、 Movie information, etc , This process is called scraping .
At present, the most powerful scraping function is infuse, Other kodi、plex、emby It's not particularly perfect , however plex and emby than kodi Better , So you can kodi In the installation plex perhaps emby Plug in for , To borrow plex and emby To sort out the corresponding information .
Scraping function also has independent special scraping plug-in or software , These are more complicated , We won't talk for the time being .
Install from scratch NAS System （ Xiaobaixiang ）
Let's take Wei Unicom as an example , Explore the corresponding approach .
This belongs to xiaobaixiang , Those who understand can skip directly .
Generally speaking , I suggest downloading one first Qfinder Pro Software , So when NAS After connecting to the Gigabit Network , It will automatically find the machine and guide the installation .
Intelligent installation guide interface .
The following is a brief description of , Just do it , If in doubt , You can consult in comments .
Set user name and password , The first time I gave you an administrator account , Later, you can add your own account and corresponding permissions .
Setup time , Choose East eight .
IP Address automatically , Relaxed , The other settings don't move .
Check transmission service , See the demand , If you have mac and win, Just tick in , If only win equipment , Just check the first one , It doesn't matter if this choice is wrong , You can set it up later .
Click apply .
Wait for a moment .
Complete set .
Entry system .
Get into “ Store in snapshot Manager ”.
You will find that there are no partitions and no storage pools .
We don't think about storage pools here , That's a preference for medium and advanced users who have certain needs , Home audio and video users can completely ignore .
Let's also talk about storage pools , Storage pool you can understand as an advanced storage method , A bunch of hard drives , Different capacities 、 Different specifications , You can build storage pools , More flexible .
I have two at home at present NAS No storage pool has been set up , So click no disk to create a new disk .
Here, select the static volume , Thick and thin volumes support advanced recovery functions such as snapshots , There's no need for video .
RAID Type alone .
It's not about keeping important information , No need for high read-write performance , There's no need to form raid.
And then the next step along the way , Until completion .
Configure remote （ Public network IP or NAS Bring their own cloudlink）
Public network IP What do you do ？ Simply speaking , This is the only place on the Internet for your home , Only with public network IP, To be quick 、 Convenient remote access .
If you're a telecom user , Public network IP It's better to do , If you're Unicom or mobile , We can only use the remote access or peanut shell intranet penetration service provided by Wei Unicom , The former is called cloudlink, The implementation is simple and free , To Wei Unicom APP Center Download cloudlink, Then go to myqnapcloud.com You can use it by registering an account on , But the speed is relatively slow （ It's no problem watching movies from a distance ） The speed of the latter depends on how much you spend .
How to judge whether it is a public network IP Well , It's very simple , Baidu local IP, Go to the router again WAN IP, If it's consistent, it's the public network IP, Inconsistent, that is not the public network IP.
Apply for the public network IP It's up to you , Telecommunication is relatively easy .
Configure the public network IP
This is a more complicated paragraph , If you don't understand , trouble , So just skip this one , Look at the back. I'm concerned about cloudlink Set up , There's no problem watching movies , You're not remotely transferring files anyway .
With the dynamic public network IP after , The first thing we need to do is to register a peanut shell account , To apply for shell domain name and DDNS（ Dynamic domain name resolution ） service .
Shell domain name is convenient for remote web access , That is, a fixed access domain name ,DDNS It's to analyze your dynamic public network IP Of , Because of this public network IP It changes in real time , Not immutable .
There's not much to say about the shell registration process , Real name authentication after registration , Spend dozens of dollars can have their own permanent shell domain name , It's more convenient .
This shell domain name plus port , You can access your home remotely NAS 了 , Of course, we have to set up under the router DDNS And port forwarding .
Set up DDNS Before , Let's fix it first NAS LAN IP Address .
ASUS router can be specified manually IP Address .
NAS Fix IP When it's set , Let's set DDNS service , Asus has its own services , But I'm still used to using peanut shells .
The settings are simple , In the external network , There is one DDNS, Different routers are the same , The server chooses peanut shell , Enter the user name and password , Just save the page settings .
Before setting the forwarding port of Unicom, let's take a look at the internal port settings .
open NAS Console , Find system management , You can see NAS The default system port of is 5000, It is suggested to modify the values .
Fill in the internal port NAS Port value of , External ports can be consistent , It can also be other values .
The communication protocol is TCP, Local IP Address before NAS Fixed setting IP, Just click OK .
To configure cloudlink
Get into APP cetenr, download Cloudlink Cloud Unicom .
Register your account on the interface , And activate the account .
This is also similar to the peanut shell domain name , Easy direct access to .
After finishing, you can see the corresponding address here , And enable DDNS service .
Remote access test successful .
Set up PT download （Transmission）
If you have PT Account, then you can see this part , If not , It doesn't matter , Anyway, data can be transferred directly to NAS.
PT Account can go to Baidu PT Let's see , Or what channel do you use to get your account , I won't say more here .
Weiunicom's own download is not easy to use , So we usually choose Transmission This kind of PT Download program
We need to install TR Of X86 edition ,ARM The version also has .
This is the official download address https://qnapclub.eu/fr/qpkg/208.
These two versions I'm in my own nas I've tried it on , No problem , First correspondence TS453Bmini such X86 Architecturally NAS, The second corresponds to TS428 such ARM Architecturally NAS.
Installation needs to be in APP The upper right corner of the center , Click and install manually .
Open after installation transmission, The default user name and password are qnap, Click and go in .
This interface is too crude , Too ugly , You can't set your own download restrictions , Don't worry. , And continue to transform .
The tools we need are WinSCP, This is a very important tool .
After installed WinSCP, open , Enter your login name 、IP Log in to your NAS.
Find it in the upper right corner NAS root directory (toot), Find the following folder .
notice SRC Is there a folder ？ This is the next folder we need to replace .
Download from Baidu disk link transmission-web-control-master zip Compress and unzip the package .
take transmission-web-control-master Inside src Renamed as src1 copy to NAS Under the folder , At the same time NAS Under folder src Renamed as web Folder , Finally, the src1 Change it to src, This is for quick recovery after a problem .
After the modification, see if the interface is like this .
If it's still the crude interface before , Sure Ctrl+F5 Force refresh , So you can see the new interface .
It's not over , Because by default TR You can't customize the download folder , We need to make other changes .
This interface defaults to PT Save directory cannot be in TR Modify inside , Very bad .
I use mobile hard disk as download disk , So I connected the mobile hard disk first .
Or use WinSCP open NAS root directory , Find the folder where the mobile hard disk is located .
Click on USBdisk1 You can find that the directory path is /share/external/DEV3304_1, Copy it .
Modify the default save directory directly .
Download successful , excellent .
PT Download must be connected to a broken hard disk , Because it can maximize the life of expensive NAS Hard disk .
Build the corresponding streaming media system
If we don't build a streaming system , Is there any good remote viewing solution ？
Um. , If you don't build a streaming system , It's OK, too , And it doesn't cost a cent , Or a small amount of money .
Streaming media is about visualizing video , Beautiful .
If you don't care , Directly select the file to watch , That's too simple .
What do you need ？
Two cell phones APP And a mobile phone that's not too bad .
APP One is Wynn's Qfile, The other is local broadcasting APP.
Someone has to say , I have direct web remote access to NAS Can't directly call the local player of the computer to play ？
Wei Unicom used to be able to , But at present, only the mobile end can call a third party APP Play .
I use IOS give an example .
Mobile access Qfile, Find the corresponding video file .
When playing, pay attention to select the original file , This time it will pop up and choose to play APP, You can choose IOS Under the infuse perhaps nplayer, There are free versions of both , It's just that the free version has a few restrictions .
I'm a paid version myself infuse Pro, The cell phone is iPhone 11 Prio, If the bandwidth is enough , It can even play smoothly 4k H265 video , But because my home upload bandwidth only 2-3MB Per second , So the measured maximum can only be played remotely 1080P H265 video .
At this time, you can turn on the screen projection function of apple .
Actually measured , I'm micro casting 、 On Xiaomi TV , Even my MacBook Pro Can cast screen on the remote smooth play all 1080P H265.
Android Qfile At the same time, it can be played by a third party player , Android also has the screen projection function , therefore , If you don't care about beauty and convenience , This should be your best solution .
build plex perhaps emby Let's talk about these two systems
For testing purposes , I installed both systems , It has been tested on Android and apple clients respectively , And they all tested and opened a month of Membership ,plex and emby Only by opening members can we solve the problem 4K, Otherwise, it will be stuck and unable to play smoothly and remotely , Another system Jellyfin You can turn on hardware acceleration for free , But I always take the view that free is not the best , Let's leave it for the next test , Free will still charge after all , What the world can solve with money doesn't have to torture itself .
First , If you're not an Apple user , No, infuse, Well, I recommend Emby, Because the interface is so friendly , It's also very beautiful .
in addition , Unknown reason , In my hands J3455 Of NAS install plex, Web remote play 4K video , After a lot of trying to set it up , It's not stuck at all , You can even transcode with a mobile phone 4G Watch online 4k; however , I use J4005 Of 251D install Emby, Web remote play 4k The video will get stuck , and emby In terms of hardware transcoding settings plex There will be fewer settings , I'm not sure if it's a setup problem , because plex It's stuck before you adjust the settings , Theoretically J4005 Is better than J3455 The nucleus of , It's not supposed to be stuck .
Plex download 、 The installation is a little complicated , The interface is not particularly friendly , Android APP client , The official website can't download , So far I've tested , Only the Android phone app can be downloaded to plex The latest version .
Emby download 、 It's easy to install , Android app client , It's easy to download from the official website .
IOS Not to mention , It's easy to download apps .
infuse You can access plex service , This is my final choice plex Why .
Various types of server versions can be found on the official website , Basically, you can think of it , He had all the unexpected .
We are NAS Choose from QNAP edition , Remember X86 yes X86 Version of ,ARM yes ARM edition , Don't choose the wrong one .
Manual installation .
register ID And the password , The address can be left blank , Click on next.
Add media library , You are the one NAS The folder where the information is located .
After choosing OK.
Check the sources of scrapers , The third check is support NFO file , This file is the information file that comes with the film , Check on .
Don't worry about the rest .
Choose simplified Chinese as subtitle download language , Check " Open captions ", The third one I didn't understand .
You can see the corresponding public network address in the background , If you are cloulink Set the penetration service for , direct XXXX.myqnapcloud.cn:8096 Visit the web version server ,8096 yes emby Default port number , And if it's a public network IP, Except for the specified port number , You also need to set the next port forwarding in the router .
PLEX Interface , Very beautiful .
Remote playback 1080P In the movies , Very smooth , Soft solution CPU about 60% about , I still haven't bought it emby members .
After buying members , You will see the hardware transcoder settings in the background transcoding section , Only by opening this can we solve the problem 4k.
see CPU The number , Hard solution 4K And soft solution 1080P The occupancy rate is almost the same , The same is 60%.
You can choose a variety of code rates , LAN test, you can choose the original disk to play .
It's also easy to edit metadata , Just modify it by yourself .
mobile phone APP visit .
plex I study more .
However, we can install it directly in the application center plex, This is very convenient .
I wrote western data before NAS When I registered plex, So the registration screen skips , Start with a media library , because plex The setup is more complicated , So this is more about .
Add media library , Like movies , The language is Chinese .
Select the corresponding folder .
Advanced settings , first line “hide itms which are in collections” It means automatically merging a series of movies into a series .
The scanner is plex movie scanner unchanged .
The agent must choose the movie datebase, Friendly to Chinese support .
The region chooses China .
plex You need to manually specify the port , I manually specify it as 32400, And set up port forwarding in the router , If you are cloudink Remote access set in , After manually specifying the port, you can directly access .
PLEX Interface , It's still pretty , But when I took a screenshot plex It's not finished yet , So a lot of the movie series didn't show up ,plex The shaving speed is still relatively slow , I suggest watching it after a night .
Yes, of course , Change metadata , Poster data , Movie data is also available .
Bought a month member , I summed up a transcoding setup , It is suggested that the upload bandwidth is relatively small ,J3455 According to my setting .
The transcoding quality is set to prefer higher speed encoding, I started with auto, Remote viewing 4k One card, one card .
X264 I'm not sure if the settings have anything to do with carton , My personal feeling is that the first cause is , Here I set it to super fast, It used to be fast.
long-range ,1080P 8 Mbps Transcoding is not stuck .
Can see the current transcoding scene in the background in real time .
use IOS And Android also tested .
IOS test 4k, The mobile terminal is 4G The Internet , Non LAN and WiFi The Internet , The picture quality of the mobile phone is 720P.
There is no pressure to play , Very smooth ,4G Under the network ,720P 2Mbps The bit rate is acceptable , After all, the screen is small .
Not 4G Under the network ,1080P You can watch in source code .
This is Android PLEX Client interface , The latest version can be downloaded from the app gallery , I used app app before , Although you can also search for plex client , But the version is very outdated , Can't play video properly .
Except for the web version and APP edition , Box on TV kodi Also have plex Plug ins are available , If you use plex, There's no need to use kodi My own shaver , Use it directly plex perhaps emby Plug ins can .
Because I don't have an Android box at home , And the TV installation kodi It's going to go out of order , So it doesn't work kodi test , I am a Apple TV Installed infuse, Before iufuse Cutting and scraping ability is quite strong , This build plex Behind the platform , It's right there infuse It's connected to plex, It's not bad either .
2 Disk as home audio and video NAS Is it enough ？
The answer is enough , After all, if you focus on performance ,X86 In the processor J3455、J4005 as well as J4115 These two Bay models are completely adequate .
Two disks form raid The capacity will be inferior to that of multiple disks , But you really need to raid？
My previous experience of losing data has taught me not to back up only one copy of important documents , But at least 2 Share , In different devices .
household NAS It's nothing more than video entertainment or the function of saving some photos ,2 Drawer NAS On the contrary, it has the characteristics of low power consumption and low noise .
And start from scratch , build NAS Video server is not as difficult as you think , After all, there is a lot of ready-made experience to share , and NAS At this stage of development , It's very mature .
Of course, you can build your own NAS The server , But it requires more knowledge , Stability also makes it impossible to meet demand .
NAS It's very playable , such as web The server and docker Containers , In theory, it can be embodied in various devices , These are the places to think about in the future .