AI Fire , To what extent is the fire ？
I went to a meeting last weekend , The one on the left is big data , The one on the right is big data , The former is a data platform , There are a lot of investment institutions in the back AI. The next day the meeting was drawing to a close , There was a pile of audience behind the meeting .
from 2016 year AlphaGo Victory over the human race, go world champion begins ,AI Officially in the public eye .
AI What is it , How does it develop step by step , What kind of application does it have , Who is driving AI ？ We need a copy of AI The popular science .
What is artificial intelligence （AI）
Please look down
What is artificial intelligence （AI）
Artificial intelligence (Artificial Intelligence)： Research 、 Developed to simulate 、 The theory of extending and expanding human intelligence 、 Method 、 A new technical science of technology and application systems . This science tries to understand the essence of intelligence , And produce a new kind of intelligent machine that can respond in a similar way to human intelligence , Research in this field includes robots 、 Speech recognition 、 Image recognition 、 Natural language processing and expert system, etc . It's a related subject “ The research of intelligent agent and the knowledge of design ”（ An agent is a system that can observe its surroundings and take actions to achieve its goals .）
AI is divided into weak AI 、 Strong artificial intelligence and super artificial intelligence , The main criterion of distinction is whether it exceeds the level of human intelligence , It's weak AI 、 It means strong AI 、 Beyond that is super AI . At present, we are in the stage of weak artificial intelligence for quite a long time .
AI Related important concepts
It's development AI The necessary basic conditions for the development of the industry , It's also a new way of thinking .
big data ,Big data, It's also called huge data , The term refers to the inability of traditional data processing applications to handle their large or complex data sets . With the same amount of data , Compared with small data sets with independent analysis , A lot of additional information and data relativities can be obtained by combining small data sets for analysis , Can be used to detect business trends 、 Determine the quality of the study 、 Avoid the spread of the disease 、 Combat crime or measure real-time traffic conditions, etc ; That's why large data sets are so popular .
It's using algorithms to parse data 、 Learn from it , Then make decisions and predictions about events in the real world . With the traditional for solving specific tasks 、 Hard coded software programs are different , Machine learning uses a lot of data “ Training ”, Learn how to complete tasks from data through various algorithms .
It is a representation learning method based on data in machine learning . Think of what a computer wants to learn as a lot of data , Throw this data into a complex , A data processing network with multiple levels , Then check whether the result data obtained by the network processing meets the requirements , If meet , Just keep this network as the target model , If it doesn't meet , Just over and over again , Persevere in adjusting network parameter settings , Until the output meets the requirements .
Deep learning is a kind of flexible expression ability , At the same time, it allows the computer to keep trying , Machine learning methods that ultimately force the target . The advantage is to use unsupervised or semi supervised feature learning and hierarchical feature extraction algorithm instead of manual feature extraction . It's a new field in machine learning , The motive is to establish 、 A neural network that simulates the human brain for analytical learning , It mimics the mechanism of the human brain to interpret data , Such as images , Voice and text .
big data 、 machine learning 、 The relationship between deep learning and the three , In short, it's , A bunch of big data , The computer lists and classifies the data （ Algorithm ） The analysis can get the most close or satisfied answer to the question , This is a machine learning . If, on the basis of classification and analysis, the computer comes up with a set of rules , And according to the law to predict and analyze the answer , This is it. Deep learning . Machine learning is the solution , Deep learning solves the problem of knowing why . What we say AI Development , At this stage and in the future , It's a constant breakthrough in deep learning .
Let's take a more understandable example .
There was a group of people who saw a girl , The device associated with him （AI） It shows that he fell in love with girls at first sight , The device data is reflected in the hormonal index 、 Heart rate changes and so on . This is the result of machine learning analysis , The data associated with the device is stored when the scene is combined and the data of various signs changes significantly , It's the result of liking .
What is deep learning ？ Deep learning solves why the young man fell in love with the girl at first sight . The data center associated with the device retrieves all the young man's past emotional experiences 、 The first love 、 Movies I've seen 、 Graphic records and so on , You can get the type of guy you like first , Combined with the characteristics of this girl , Sign index , And scene conditions , It turns out that this is his dish .
Big data and deep learning are inseparable , Deep learning can dig out the data that is difficult to deal with in the past from big data 、 Knowledge or laws . There's enough data as input to deep learning , Computers can learn concepts that only humans could understand in the past , Then apply these concepts or adaptations to new data that you've never seen before .
AI The history of
1943 year , The forerunner of artificial intelligence ——— The concept of artificial neural network is put forward . Mathematician Walter Pitts
And neurophysiologists Warren Mcculloch publish one’s thesis , The concept of artificial neural network is described , It is proved that the network can compute any computable function , And have the ability to learn .
1951 year , The first neural network computer was born . By two college students, Marvin . Minsky and Dean . Edmund invented , Can simulate 40 Neurons .
1956 year , The birth of artificial intelligence . Computer scientist John . McCarthy 、 Minsky and his students , Two month seminar at Dartmouth College , It's a collection of 10 Researchers . The biggest achievement of this seminar is to name this new field as “ Artificial intelligence ”.
1962 year , The world's first industrial robot “ Unimet ” Start working on car assembly .
1966-1972 years , Stanford International Research Institute has developed a mobile robot Shakey, This is the first mobile robot to use artificial intelligence .
1972-1980 years , There has been a major breakthrough in the field of neural networks . But the development of computer technology is too slow . AI is cold .
1980-1987 years , Neural networks are reborn , Knowledge processing has become the mainstream AI The focus of research . Sales of AI related hardware and software in the United States are as high as 4.25 Billion dollars .
1987-1993 years ,AI Push the organization to cut back on AI The support of ,DARPA The new leader of the company believes that AI Is not “ The next wave ”,AI Cold again . later stage , According to the achievements of robotics, researchers put forward a new artificial intelligence scheme .
1997 year ,IBM“ Deep blue ” Beat world chess champion Kasparov . This is a AI Milestones .
2006 year , Geoffrey . Hinton created the deep learning algorithm , AI is accelerating .
2011 year ,Watson（ Watson ） As IBM The company's artificial intelligence program that uses natural language to answer questions takes part in the American quiz program , Beat two human champions , Won 100 $10000 bonus .
2012 year , A landmark year in artificial intelligence , Google brain research group has made a major breakthrough in the field of online video intelligent recognition . AI opens up talent competition mode .
2015 year ： The year of AI breakthrough ,Google The second generation of machine learning platform is introduced, which can train computer to complete tasks directly by using a large amount of data Tensor Flow; Cambridge University set up the Institute of artificial intelligence .
2016 year ：AlphaGo Defeat the go world champion Li Shishi , Artificial intelligence has officially entered the public view .
In terms of history , AI has experienced three ups and downs , Four stages of development ：
For the first time ：1950-1970 years
For the first time ：1970 In the middle and late 1990s
The second rise ：1980-1987 year
The second time ：1987-1993 year
The third rise ：1993 From now on
1950-1970 years ： Using computers to simulate human logic
1970-1990 years ： The establishment of expert system based on rules ;
1990-2010 years ： Data driven and machine learning ;
2010- so far ： big data + Deep learning
AI Famous people in history
Allen · Maxson · Turing Alan Mathison Turing：“ The father of artificial intelligence ”
John . McCarthy John McCarthy：“ Artificial intelligence ” Named by
Geoffrey . Xin ton Geoffrey Hinton： The builder of deep learning , One of the three founders of artificial intelligence
Yann · Lok Kun Yann LeCun： One of the three founders of artificial intelligence , It has made an important contribution to the research and development of neural network , Especially in the field of image recognition
Joshua · Bengio Yoshua Bengio： One of the three founders of artificial intelligence , Machine learning experts , His research work focuses on advanced machine learning , Committed to solving AI problems with it
Thunder . Kozweil Ray Kurzweil： AI pioneers 、 Futurist , One of the most important people in the field of artificial intelligence , Good at forecasting the future , stay 1990 Published in 《 The age of intelligent machines 》,2005 Published in 《 Singularity approaching 》
Jeff · Hawkins Jeff Hawkins： The first PDA in history Palm Pilot inventor ,2002 year , He began to work on neuroscience and the learning process of artificial intelligence focusing on the function of the human cerebral cortex , During this period, the rosewood theoretical neuroscience center was founded
Wu enda Andrew Ng： One of the most authoritative scholars in the field of artificial intelligence and machine learning , Google brain chief research ,2014 It was poached by Baidu in , Leave after three years .
AI Typical works and reports
《 The age of artificial intelligence 》
Jerry . Kaplan ,2016
《 Out of control ： The ultimate fate and outcome of all mankind 》
Kevin . Kelly ,2010
《 Singularity approaching 》
Thunder . Kozweil ,2005
《 Development plan of new generation artificial intelligence 》
The State Council of China ,2017.7
《 Artificial intelligence , Machine learning and data are future generations The source of productivity 》
Goldman Sachs ,2016.12
《2030 Years of AI and life 》
Stanford University artificial intelligence Centennial research project group ,2016.9
AI Main application
At present AI Applications are mainly focused on security 、 Finance 、 Three areas of medical care , Others are living in wisdom 、 Transportation field 、 The education system has also made a lot of achievements .
Is currently the AI The most widely used field , Like video surveillance , Face recognition , Speech recognition and other technologies are widely used in the field of security . With HD video 、 Intelligent analysis 、 The development of cloud computing, big data and other related technologies , Security is changing from traditional passive defense to active judgment 、 Early warning development , The industry is also moving from a single security field to multi industry applications 、 Improve productivity 、 Improve the intelligent level of life and develop in the direction of , Provide visualization for more industries and people 、 Intelligent solutions , The important role of artificial intelligence is gradually emerging . Some experts predict , future 4 To 5 Year time , Security will enter an era of rapid development of artificial intelligence .
yes AI The most promising landing field at present . This field is the industry with the best accumulation of big data in the world .
Massive transaction data based on customers , We can recommend products for accurate customers 、 Asset forecasts 、 Risk prevention and control ; New financial platforms like ant financial services have successfully applied artificial intelligence to Internet small loans 、 insurance 、 Credit reporting 、 Asset allocation 、 Customer service, etc .
Goldman Sachs Group 2016 year 12 In a report released in May, it was pointed out that , In the financial industry , A conservative estimate , To 2025 in , Machine learning and artificial intelligence can create about a year by saving costs and bringing new profitable opportunities 340 Billion -430 The value of billion . One case is ,2017 year , JPMorgan has developed a financial contract analysis software COIN, Originally, the staff needed... Every year 36 Ten thousand hours of work ,COIN It only takes a few seconds to complete .
AI One of the most meaningful help to mankind is to promote the development of medical technology , Let the machine 、 Algorithms and big data serve human health . at present ,AI It has been used in various fields of health care ：
In terms of Computational Intelligence , It's mainly used for gene sequencing , Drug discovery , Disease prediction , pre ;
At the level of perceptual intelligence , Mainly used for medical intelligent voice , Medical robot , Wearable devices and telemedicine ;
At the level of cognitive intelligence , It is mainly used for medical intelligent decision-making , Intelligent diagnosis , Personalized medicine .
Well known companies AI Venture capital
stay AI field ,IBM It's the early pioneers , It brought modernity to the public AI,IBM Watson （Watson） I've been on TV Jeopardy. As the representative of knowledge solution service , Revenue has accounted for IBM Total revenue 22%. up to now ,IBM There are dozens of different AI Products and services , These products and services can be roughly divided into two categories ： Developer tools and prefabricated applications .IBM And sponsor 500 Thousands of dollars , Get startups in the challenge , use AI Solve the world's big problems .
IBM future 10 The core of this year's strategy is “ Smart earth ” plan , Hope in smart energy , Intelligent transportation , Intelligent medical treatment , Smart retail, smart water resources, etc .
As early as 1991 year , Microsoft has been involved in machine learning , At present, there are hundreds of scientists and engineers in dozens of research fields in this field . Microsoft has invested a lot of energy in AI , There are also many AI products available , Like ice 、 Xiaona and intelligent map recognition website, etc .
There is a huge machine learning inside Microsoft 、AI The team . There are many sub teams under the team , Focus on algorithmic Economics 、 Deep learning 、 machine learning 、 Machine teaching 、 Research on natural language operations and other projects . machine learning 、AI Team innovation has also been integrated into Microsoft products and services .
Intel AI The research mainly focuses on machine learning 、 Deep learning 、 Chips and software AI, It has acquired a number of companies that focus on AI Small businesses in research . Using cognitive technology to speed up the development of new products , Using big data for visual analysis .
As early as 2006-2010 Google brain has been built since , Put forward “AI Go ahead ” Our strategic slogan ;2012-2015 year , Google internal use of deep learning project to achieve 1000 Multiple ,2015 It was founded in, focusing on AI The company Alphabet, At present, the company has become the largest in the world AI platform .
Now we have two laboratories , At the same time, the layout of basic research and product applications . It focuses on FAIR（Facebook AI Research） Mainly engaged in AI Research , It covers areas such as natural language processing 、 Computer vision .
The specific plan has not been disclosed yet , But apple is moving to AI investment , Recently, Apple has publicly recruited employees , Jobs are also related to machine learning , It also acquired AI startup Emotient and Vocal IQ
Amazon has been studying machine learning for a long time , It uses technology on e-commerce sites , Recommend products to users 、 Forecast price . Amazon CEO Jeff · Bezos （Jeff Bezos） Express ：“ future 20 year ,AI How much impact will it have on society , It's really hard for us to estimate .” Amazon also bought AI startup Orbeus. At present, the human resources invested in its speech recognition ecosystem are 1000 people .
from 2013 year 1 Robin Li proposed to set up a deep learning institute in the month 、4 Since the establishment of the Silicon Valley Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in June , Artificial intelligence has gradually become Baidu's strategic development direction .2013 Year to 2017 year , On the one hand, Baidu has increased basic technology research and development , On the other hand, accelerate the commercialization of products . at present , Baidu has applied for more than 2000 term 、 There are hundreds of foreign patent applications , The technical content involves speech recognition 、 Image recognition 、 natural language understanding 、 User portrait 、 Autopilot 、 Deep learning 、 Cloud computing, etc , These technologies will help Baidu seize the technological commanding height . The most well-known , It's in Baidu's driverless field Apollo plan .
Founded in Seattle, USA AI Lab, Dr. Yu Dong, a former chief researcher of Microsoft in the field of speech recognition and deep learning, was appointed as AI Lab The deputy director is responsible for the operation and management of the laboratory , The company now plays an important role in the development of artificial intelligence research . tencent AI Lab Self developed face recognition technology has achieved initial results , It has been used to help the police find the lost child , So far, we have recovered 400 A number of . At present, Tencent's AI Technology has been used in effect advertising 、 Content service （ Daily Express 、QQ Music, etc ）、 Financial technology 、 Social products （ Day after day P chart 、 WeChat, etc. ） Other business lines , The products involved amount to 100 Multiple .
from 2015 Year begins , Alibaba cloud's first visual AI platform DTPAI, Integrated Ali core algorithm library , Including feature Engineering 、 Large scale machine learning 、 Deep learning, etc . On this basis , AI launched by Ali ET, Now it has intelligent voice interaction 、 Images / Video recognition 、 Traffic forecast 、 Emotional analysis and other skills .ET The advantage lies in the overall insight and real-time decision-making , Make the best decisions quickly in complex situations . Now ET The front end has evolved four converged AI 、 Cloud computing 、 Artificial intelligence center of big data and other technologies “ The brain ”, To provide services for enterprises and government public affairs in various vertical fields .
1. Cover image ：2006 year , stay AI The first study was also named 1956 Fifty years after Dartmouth , The parties reunite . From the left ： Mole , McCarthy , Minsky , Selfridge , Solomonov
2. All the above information comes from the learning and editing of Internet information , Thanks to the knowledge providers . If you have different opinions , Please contact me .
I'm a doctor , A surgeon with a story , Click on the QR code below , Come with me , In a playful way , Start a different hospital journey , Understand the past and present of the development of surgery .