A secret history: How did the Central Library of the Communist Party of China survive in Shanghai during the white terror period?
City air 2020-11-27 11:30:16
Where the leaders of the CPC Central Committee consult the documents

1921 year , After the founding of the Communist Party of China , The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has been stationed in Shanghai for a long time . With the advancement of various work and the development of Party organizations in all localities , The documents of the ministries and commissions of the CPC Central Committee are constantly increasing , Many of them involve the party's top secrets .

1926 year 7 month , Adopted by the Third Plenary Session of the fourth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China 《 Resolution on organizational issues 》 determine “ The establishment of a Central Secretariat , To take charge of all kinds of technical work of the Central Committee ”. The document section of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee , Document reading 、 Responsibilities of custody and receiving and sending . Next year 10 month , Set up a document depository in the clerical section .

1930 year 4 month 19 Japan , The CPC Central Committee is in 《 Letter to all comrades working in all ministries and commissions of the Central Committee on secret work 》 Specified in the , Because of the bad environment , It is not appropriate for ministries to keep documents , all “ Unnecessary files , It must be kept in the custody at all times ”. Autumn of the same year , The document depository is withdrawn , And we are going to set up a reading and writing office , The main preservation is : The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has decided 、 platform 、 declaration , The Party Congress 、 Minutes of the meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee , The Communist International directive and the report submitted by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China , Letters of instruction to Party organizations at all levels , The Red Army's military documents , Party publications, etc . The reading office is located in hengjili, Gordon Road, Shanghai 1141 Number ( Now Jiangning Road 673 get 10 Number ), Zhang ji'en is in charge of the specific work . This is the Shikumen house , It's one main, two compartments and three bays , Rented by Zhang ji'en in the name of his father , For external use “ Xiaokai ” Identity as a cover , This is the place where the leaders of the CPC Central Committee consult the documents , It is also a secret meeting place of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee .

 A secret history : The white terror period , How did the library of the CPC Central Committee survive in Shanghai ?


The Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee ( Reading Office ) former site

1931 Beginning of the year , As a result of the accumulation of documents and information has been a lot , Zhou Enlai proposed to sort out different situations 、 Comments on saving documents , And entrusted Qu Qiubai to draft a regulation . Qu Qiubai willingly obeyed his orders , Draw up 《 How to deal with the documents 》, In addition to dividing documents into four categories ( The central document 、 Local documents 、 Soviet documents 、 Red Army documents ), And how to classify 、 Arrangement 、 catalogue 、 Preservation makes provision for , And add one at the end “ General note ”:“ If possible , Of course, the ideal is two of each kind , A copy is kept for reading ( For reference , Return ), A copy goes into storage , For the future ( Our world ) The Party History Committee .” Zhou Enlai is in 《 How to deal with the documents 》 It's written on the website :“ Try it out , Let's see if we can have lunch .”

 A secret history : The white terror period , How did the library of the CPC Central Committee survive in Shanghai ?


It was drafted by Qu Qiubai 《 How to deal with the documents 》( part )

1931 year 4 month , Gu Shunzhang, one of the leaders of the special branch of the CPC Central Committee, was arrested and defected . I'm waiting for you to arrange carefully , Every secret organ of the party has taken preventive measures in time . Hidden in hengjili 20 Multiple boxes of secret files are also urgently transferred at night , Zhang Yiyi, director of the document Department of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, employs two rickshaws , To another Shikumen house in fractions , It is said that the address is shunchangli, kaizier Road, Shanghai . This is the library of the CPC Central Committee , Although there is no clear record of its establishment , But this secret archive is mentioned in Party writings .

1932 year 6 month , Chen Wei Ren ( In the early days, he studied in the foreign language society organized by the early Communist Party of Shanghai , Later, he served as secretary of Manchuria Provincial Party committee ) Take on the responsibility , Responsible for the specific management of the Central Library of the CPC .

“ I'd rather set fire to my home ”

1933 year 1 month , In a situation of extreme white terror , The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China moved to the central revolutionary base of Jiangxi Province . According to the arrangement of the party organization , Stay in Shanghai to protect the library of the CPC Central Committee . He once said to his wife Han Huiying that :“ We accept the responsibility , We have to overcome all the difficulties , Protect the party with life ‘ Secret one ’!”

In order to ensure safety , Move the library of the CPC Central Committee to your own home , And to open a shop for Xiang embroidery as a cover . Day , Chen Weiren and Han Huiying take turns to talk about business in the living room downstairs , Act like a businessman . At night , They went into the storeroom upstairs , Close the window , Tighten the curtain , Organize the documents carefully in the dim light . For the convenience of Management 、 Consideration of shifting , Chen Wei Ren recorded the letters in various books and magazines , Copy the document originally printed on thick paper on thin paper , Change big characters into small ones . After intense work , A large number of documents in the library of the CPC Central Committee are based on 《 How to deal with the documents 》 It has been properly classified and repackaged . According to party rules , Chen Wei Ren usually lives in seclusion , No contact with other comrades , To avoid being watched by spies , Bring danger to the library of the CPC Central Committee . Chen Weiren also agreed with Han Huiying , If there is a serious problem , When we have to , I'd rather set fire to my home , We can't let the enemy get the documents .

 A secret history : The white terror period , How did the library of the CPC Central Committee survive in Shanghai ?


Chen Wei Ren

1933 year 12 month , In order to avoid the enemy's extensive search , Chen Wei Ren 、 Han Huiying once moved the library of the CPC Central Committee to Shanghai Xiafei road ( Now Huaihai middle road ) Upstairs of an old Russian lady's house . The documents in and out of the library of the CPC Central Committee , Both by Han Huiying and “ Mr. Zhang ” One line connection .1935 year 2 month ,“ Mr. Zhang ” It's located on rami Road, Shanghai ( Today Yongkang road ) Wen'an square 6 The secret service of No , Han Huiying was arrested when she went to pick up the documents . Chen Wei Ren sees his wife's delay in returning , Maybe she had an accident , So “ Wood shop owner ” He Xingfang is located in xiaoshadu Road, Shanghai 15 A Shikumen house in No , Transfer the Central Library of the CPC to there immediately .

In the case of losing contact with the party organization , Chen Wei Ren should protect the library of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China , And three young children , Life is very difficult . In the toughest days , The family only eat two porridge a day , The children were crying with hunger . Because of lack of nutrition, Chen Weiren has a relapse of lung disease , Keep coughing , No money to go to the hospital for treatment , It's just raw radish . After a few months , Han Huiru, his wife and sister, came to Shencheng from Hebei Province , Help Chen with the housework 、 Take care of children . Every night the children sleep well , Chen Wei Ren often opens the box with illness , Let's ask Han Huiru to turn it over together , Prevent the document from getting damp and moldy .1935 year 12 month , After being tortured, Han Huiying insisted that she was going to the wrong door , The enemy couldn't find a flaw , And released her .

1936 year 4 month , Han Huiying has been running in many ways , With the help of an underground Communist Party member , With Xu Qiang of the special branch of the CPC Central Committee ( Code name “ Thin person ”) Connect with the relationship . Xu Qiang once recalled :“ I see people , Pale face , Very thin and weak , Is vomiting blood .”6 Mid month , Chen Weiren feels that his health is getting worse and worse , In order to facilitate future comrades to manage the Central Library of the CPC , He wrote down a copy of 《 You must read when you open the box 》, There are two parts : The first part is “ Packing note ”, It records what documents are loaded in the five file boxes , The first box is the documents of the CPC Central Committee and the Comintern , The second is Shunzhi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China 、 Hubei, Henan and Anhui Central Branch 、 The Western Fujian Special Committee, etc 18 Regional documents , The third box is the Shanghai District Committee of the Communist Party of China 、 Henan provincial Party Committee 、 The central branch of the Western Hunan and Hubei provinces, etc 10 Regional documents , The fourth is the unordered file , The fifth box is Chinese and Russian books 、 publication . The second part is the unpacking notes ,“ Before opening the box , Must take a catalog review , In particular, there are two outlines to be reviewed ( All the documents , It's all sorted out according to this outline ), And then check it by the order of contents , Don't move around . At the same time after the examination , We still have to put it in the original order ”.

In view of Chen Weiren's health condition , Xu Qiang told him to go to the hospital as soon as possible , And handed over to the Central Library of the Communist Party of China , He and his wife Li Yun took over the responsibility . This move is under the command of Xu Qiang , Chen Wei Ren 、 Han Huiying has carefully sorted out , Send a batch of full wooden cases to a safe place , It's the home of Zhou Tianbao, an underground member of the Communist Party of China .

Chen Wei Ren only stayed in the hospital for a few days , It means “ I can't work now , We can't spend any more party money ”, Insist on going home . He was tired and depressed for a long time , He died within half a year , Years old 38 year .

“ Secret one ” safe and sound

1939 In the summer , Xu Qiang was transferred to Yan'an , The Central Library of the Communist Party of China is in charge of Wu Chengfang of the intelligence system of the Eighth Route Army in Shanghai , By Zhou Tianbao 、 Liu Zhao manages .

1940 In the autumn , Miao guren took over the management of the Central Library of the Communist Party of China , He was lucky “ Personal clothes ” The name of , Put more than 20000 documents into some large suitcases , Transfer to Shanghai kangnaotuolu ( Today, Kangding Road ) The pavilion of Shikumen house rented by Shengsheng . Soon , Wu Chengfang 、 Miu Guri 、 Liu Zhao was there to discuss his work , Cause the old lady's misgivings , She insisted on Miu Gu Ren to move away , So he went with his wife , Move the secret files to jiayunfang, Jinjia lane, Xinzha Road, Shanghai 1839 Shikumen house, No . thereafter , The relationship between Wu Chengfang and the Central Library of the Communist Party of China , By the young traffic man Zheng Wendao .1942 In the spring , Zheng Wendao was arrested on the way out . Miao gurin got the news , Say to your wife :“ I believe Xiao Zheng will not rebel . however , Never expose the documents to any danger , So we have to move out for the time being .” They immediately moved the secret files temporarily . Zheng Wendao insists on not spitting out the truth , Soon after, he died bravely . The library of the CPC Central Committee has not been exposed , The secret file is returned to its original location .

1942 In the summer , Miao Gulin was overworked 、 Life is hard , It leads to severe lung disease , Life is in danger , So from the year only 23 Chen Laisheng, aged 18, took over the management of the Central Library of the Communist Party of China . At that time , Shencheng is under the iron hoof of Japanese aggressors , The streets are full of bright hills and secret sentries , Chen Laisheng asked his father 、 Brother and others help with the bamboo basket 、 Flour bags and other hidden secret files , Break it up into parts and send it to the attic under the gangqingli street in Xinzha Road, Shanghai . Because of the noise , More than two months later , Chen Laisheng relocated the Central Library of the Communist Party of China , It is said that the address is Chengdu North Road, Shanghai 974 Number ( On Chengdu North Road 972 get 3 Number ) Shikumen house , Keep secret files in wooden walls . The house is not spacious , He was worried that the documents would get damp and moldy , Often take turns to dry at home , The rats are still in the box . In order to cover up and make a living , Chen Laisheng is here to open a “ Xiangrong noodle shop ”. later , In the dying struggle stage of the Kuomintang authorities , He once told his family :“ Once I sacrifice , After the founding of new China , You're looking for the top commander of the PLA's troops entering the city ……”

For the Central Library of the Communist Party of China remaining on the Bank of Huangpu River , Zhou Enlai and other central leaders have been concerned about its safety . During the Anti-Japanese War , On two occasions, the party organization has transferred the library of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China 5000 Several documents were sent to Yan'an , And considered transferring all secret files to Yan'an , But it was not implemented because of the objective conditions .

That year , The underground workers of the party have made great efforts , Through unimaginable twists and turns , So that the Central Library of the Communist Party of China can be transferred safely again and again . Final , Of the party “ Secret one ” safe and sound . It's a relay of loyalty to the mission , It's also the result of the protection of life and blood !

“ A national treasure more precious than gold ”

1949 year 5 month , After the liberation of Shanghai , After a period of time, Chen Laisheng checked and sorted out 、 Classified statistics 、 Packing and packing , Manage yourself as long as 7 The secret files of 104 packing 16 box , To the Organization Department of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China . When receiving, I found , These documents have been carefully protected for a long time ,“ Not moldy 、 Moths eat 、 Rat bite, etc ”.

A few months later , The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has received from the East China Bureau 《 On how to deal with the preservation of a large number of historical documents of the party 》.9 month 18 Japan , The general office of the Central Committee sent an urgent telegram revised by Mao Zedong himself 《 Please send the historical materials to the Central Committee 》, It says :“ A large number of historical documents of the party , most valuable , Please appoint some reliable comrades at once , Responsible for clearing up the registration 、 Packing , And send someone to escort , All sent to the Central Secretariat of Peking . People who have done good to save documents , Please reward me first .” later , this 15000 All the documents and materials about one piece have been stored in the central archives in good condition , They are known as “ A national treasure more precious than gold ”.

 A secret history : The white terror period , How did the library of the CPC Central Committee survive in Shanghai ?


1949 year 10 month 4 Japan , A letter of commendation from the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee to Chen Laisheng

20 century 80 In the early s , The author once visited Zhang ji'en, who was engaged in the underground work of the party in Shanghai . The revolutionary old man still has a fresh memory of his previous fighting career , When it comes to the library of the CPC Central Committee, it is more talkative , He introduced :“ That year , The document section of the Central Secretariat is responsible for document management .1930 In the second half of , The central reading office is located on Gordon Road , It's on Jiangning road now , I was in charge of , The staff include Zhang Yuexia 、 Su Cai 、 Zhou Xiuqing et al . Party leaders often go there to read documents . After Gu Shunzhang of the central special branch defected , Zhou Enlai received emergency information from Qian Zhuangfei from Nanjing , Quickly arrange for the transfer of central authorities , We also timely transport a batch of documents to a safe place , It's the central library .” For Chen Weiren, who later was in charge of managing the central library , Mr. Zhang is full of respect , And exclaimed :“ In a dangerous environment , There are... Before and after 10 Many comrades participated in document management , Protect the party's confidential documents , It's not easy ! It's quite a miracle !” I suddenly asked a question :“ In the past, it was connected with the Central Library of the Communist Party of China ‘ Mr. Zhang ’, Who is it ?” He thought about it and wanted to answer :“ That's Zhang's only code name , He is the chief of the document section of the Central Secretariat . After the Party Central Committee moved to Ruijin, the central revolutionary base , He became the head of the Secretariat of the Shanghai Central Bureau of the Communist Party of China . He is calm in his work , experienced and steady , So it's called ‘ Mr. Zhang ’.”

 A secret history : The white terror period , How did the library of the CPC Central Committee survive in Shanghai ?


1982 year 5 month , Zhang Ji en ( Right ) With Huang Jianran in the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee ( Reading Office ) Photo taken at the entrance of the escalator on the second floor of the old site

lately , The author made a special trip to several places where the Central Library of the Communist Party of China was set up in the past , The result is : The original kaizier road is Jinling middle road , No Shunchang lane was found in this section , There is only Xingye Road around 31 Get to 61 The old name is shunchangli ; He Xingfang, the former xiaoshadu road 15 No.1 is Xikang Road 560 get 15 Number , The old site has been verified , The houses in Shikumen have disappeared , The site is now Lianyi Xikang building ; The original kangnaotuolu is Kangding Road 600 get , The house of Shikumen has been demolished , Inside the fence is a clearing , Along the street only 616 House number ; Jiayunfang, Jinjia lane, Xinzha Road , The houses in Shikumen have disappeared , Now it's Xinzha Road 1851 Xinzha building ; The original new gate road gengqingli is the new gate road 944 get , The houses in Shikumen have disappeared , Now it's integrated with “ New Fukang li ” Residential quarters ; Chengdu North Road 974 House number and 972 get ( Xiang'an square ) You can't find any cards , Now Chengdu North Road is from 970 Jump straight to 984 Number , There is a wall between them 、 Or there are no doors along the street , But there are still some old houses on the inside , I hope we can make further investigation . I think , If you make commemorative nameplates for the relevant places , Undoubtedly, it can be used to trace the historical relics of the Central Library of the Communist Party of China “ The wizard ”.

 A secret history : The white terror period , How did the library of the CPC Central Committee survive in Shanghai ?


The former site of the Central Library of the CPC on Xikang Road

The good news is that , The well protected Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee ( Reading Office ) The old site is “ Restore the historical features , Enhance the function of education ”, It will become another red landmark of Shencheng .

Editor in chief : Huang Wei Text editing : Xu Yunqian Pictured above sources : Photos of this article are provided by the author
 The picture shows the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee ( Reading Office ) The courtyard of the old site looks up at 

source : author : Zhu Shaowei
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